Layered Scaffolds for Osteochondral Tissue Engineering

  • Diana Ribeiro Pereira
  • Rui L. Reis
  • J. Miguel OliveiraEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1058)


Despite huge efforts, tissue engineers and orthopedic surgeons still face a great challenge to functionally repair osteochondral (OC) defects. Nevertheless, over the past decade great progress has been made to find suitables strategies towards OC regeneration. In the clinics, some osteochondral tissue engineering (OCTE) strategies have already been applied although with some incongruous outcomes as OC tissue is complex in its architecture and function. In this chapter, we have summarized current OCTE strategies that are focused on hierarchical scaffold design, mainly layered scaffolds. Most suitable candidates towards functional regeneration of OC tissues are envisaged from monophasic to layered scaffolds. Herein is documented a variety of strategies with their intrinsic properties for further application as bare scaffolds or in combination with biologics. Both in vitro and in vivo approaches have been thoroughly studied aiming at functional OC regeneration. The most noteworthy studies in OC regeneration developed within the past 5 years are herein documented as well as some current clinical trials.


Osteochondral defects Hierarchical scaffolds Multilayered scaffolds Tissue integration Functional OC regeneration 



DR Pereira acknowledges the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), Portugal, for an individual grant (SFRH/BD/ 81356/2011). JM Oliveira also thanks the FCT for the funds provided under the program Investigator FCT 2012 and 2015 (IF/00423/2012 and IF/01285/2015). Thanks to Mr. Maciej Doczyk for his help with the graphic illustrations.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Diana Ribeiro Pereira
    • 1
    • 2
  • Rui L. Reis
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • J. Miguel Oliveira
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.3B’s Research Group – Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, University of Minho, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative MedicineBarcoPortugal
  2. 2.ICVS/3B’s - PT Government Associate LaboratoryBarcoPortugal
  3. 3.The Discoveries Centre for Regenerative and Precision Medicine, Headquarters at University of MinhoBarcoPortugal

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