Teaching Quality

  • Sean KellyEmail author
  • Ben Pogodzinski
  • Yuan Zhang
Part of the Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research book series (HSSR)


Sociological research has often focused on teaching practices, and features of the teaching profession, in search of mechanisms that explain disparate schooling outcomes. Yet, the study of teachers and teaching practices is complicated by the fact that students’ themselves influence classroom instruction. To what extent is systematic variation in teaching quality responsible for persistent and sometimes widening gaps in educational outcomes among social groups in the United States? The evidence summarized in this chapter reveals that most teachers in the United States are both well-qualified and skilled at increasing student achievement. This is true even in schools that serve students facing serious social problems associated with poverty. At the same time, close studies of the teaching process reveal room for improvement, and we conclude that raising the aggregate quality of teaching, and making sure that all students have access to high-quality instruction, will indeed help address persistent gaps in educational outcomes. To improve teaching quality, research, policy initiatives, and future investments must treat teachers’ work as an integrated whole, supporting the professional socialization, ongoing development, and learning of teachers, and the organizational climate in which they work.


Teacher effects Teacher quality Teacher evaluation Education reform Teacher labor market 


  1. Aaronson, D., Barrow, L., & Sander, W. (2007). Teachers and student achievement in the Chicago public high schools. Journal of Labor Economics, 25, 95–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams, J. (2012). Identifying the attributes of effective rural teachers: Teacher attributes and mathematics achievement among rural primary school students in Northwest China (Working Paper). Gansu Survey of Children and Families.Google Scholar
  3. Adamson, F., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2012). Funding disparities and the inequitable distribution of teachers: Evaluating sources and solutions. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 20, 1–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aud, S., Hussar, W., Planty, M., Snyder, T., Bianco, K., Fox, M., et al. (2010). The condition of education 2010. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
  5. Baldi, S., Warner-Griffin, C., & Tadler, C. (2015). Education and certification qualifications of public middle grades teachers of selected subjects: Evidence from the 2011–12 Schools and Staffing Survey (NCES 2015-815). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  6. Ball, D. L., & Cohen, D. K. (1999). Developing practices, developing practitioners: Toward a practice-based theory of professional development. In G. Sykes & L. Darling-Hammond (Eds.), Teaching as the learning profession: Handbook of policy and practice (pp. 30–32). San Francisco: Jossy-Bass.Google Scholar
  7. Ballou, D. (2005). Value-added assessment: Lessons from Tennessee. In R. Lissitz (Ed.), Value-added models in education: Theory and application (pp. 1–26). Maple Grove, JAM Press.Google Scholar
  8. Berliner, D. (1976). A status report on the study of teacher effectiveness. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 13, 369–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bidwell, C. E. (2000). School as context and construction: A social psychological approach to the study of schooling. In M. T. Hallinan (Ed.), Handbook of sociology in education (pp. 15–36). New York: Kluwer Academic.Google Scholar
  10. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. (2010). Learning about teaching: Initial findings from the Measures of Effective Teaching project.
  11. Birman, B. F., Boyle, A., Le Floch, K. C., Elledge, A., Holtzman, D., Song, M., et al. (2009). State and local implementation of the No Child Left Behind act,Volume VIII—Teacher quality under NCLB: Final report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  12. Blazer, D., Litke, E., & Barmore, J. (2016). What does it mean to be ranked a “high” or “low” value-added teacher? Observing differences in instructional quality across districts. American Educational Research Journal, 53, 324–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bourdieu, P. (1986). The forms of capital. In J. G. Richardson (Ed.), International handbook of theory & research for sociology of education (pp. 241–258). New York: Greenwood.Google Scholar
  14. Bryk, A., & Schneider, B. (2002). Trust in schools: A core resource for improvement. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  15. Bryk, A. S., Sebring, P. B., Allensworth, E., Easton, J. Q., & Luppescu, S. (2010). Organizing schools for improvement: Lessons from Chicago. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  16. Bulman, R. C. (2005). Hollywood goes to high school: Cinema, schools, and American culture. New York: Worth.Google Scholar
  17. Camburn, E. M. (2010). Embedded teacher learning opportunities as a site for reflective practice: An exploratory study. American Journal of Education, 116, 463–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Camburn, E. M., & Han, S. W. (2015). Infrastructure for teacher reflection and instructional change: An exploratory study. Journal of Educational Change, 16, 511–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chaplin, D., Gill, B,. Thompkins, A., & Miller, H. (2014). Professional practice, student surveys, and value-added: Multiple measures of teacher effectiveness in the Pittsburgh Public Schools (REL 2014–024). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic.Google Scholar
  20. Clotfelter, C. T. (2004). After Brown: The rise and retreat of school desegregation. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Clotfelter, C. T., Ladd, H. F., & Vigdor, J. L. (2005). Who teaches whom? Race and the distribution of novice teachers. Economics of Education Review, 24, 377–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Clotfelter, C. T., Ladd, H. F., & Vigdor, J. L. (2006). Teacher–student matching and the assessment of teacher effectiveness. The Journal of Human Resources, 41, 778–820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Clotfelter, C. T., Ladd, H. F., & Vigdor, J. L. (2007). Teacher credentials and student achievement: Longitudinal analysis with student fixed effects. Economics of Education Review, 26, 673–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Coburn, C. E. (2001). Collective sensemaking about reading: How teachers mediate reading policy in their professional communities. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 23, 145–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Coburn, C. E., & Russell, J. L. (2008). District policy and teachers’ social networks. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 30, 203–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Coleman, J. S. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94 (Supplement 1988), S95–S120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Coleman, J. S., Campbell, E. Q., Hobson, C. J., McPartland, J., Mood, A. M., Weinfeld, F. D., & York, R. L. (1966). Equality of educational opportunity. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  28. Croft, A., Coggshall, J. G., Dolan, M., & Powers, E. (2010). Job-embedded professional development: What it is, who is responsible, and how to get it done well (Issue Brief). Washington, DC: National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. Retrieved from
  29. Crow, G. M., & Pounder, D. G. (2000). Interdisciplinary teacher teams: Context, design, and process. Educational Administration Quarterly, 36, 216–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Danielson, C. (2011). The framework for teaching evaluation instrument, 2011 edition. Princeton: The Danielson Group.Google Scholar
  31. Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). Teacher quality and student achievement: A review of state policy evidence. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 8(1).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Darling-Hammond, L., & McLaughlin, M. W. (1995). Policies that support professional development in an era of reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 76, 597–604.Google Scholar
  33. Darling-Hammond, L., Wei, R. C., & Johnson, C. M. (2009a). Teacher preparation and teacher learning. In G. Sykes, B. Schneider, & D. L. Plank (Eds.), Handbook of education policy research (pp. 613–636). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  34. Darling-Hammond, L., Wei, R. C., Andree, A., Richardson, N., & Orphanos, S. (2009b). Professional learning in the learning profession. Washington, DC: National Staff Development Council.Google Scholar
  35. Darling-Hammond, L., Amrein-Beardsley, A., Haertel, E., & Rothstein, S. (2012). Evaluating teacher evaluation. Phi Delta Kappan, 93, 8–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Desimone, L. M., & Long, D. (2010). Teacher effects and the achievement gap: Do teacher and teaching quality influence the achievement gap between Black and White and high- and low-SES students in the early grades? Teachers College Record, 112, 3024–3073.Google Scholar
  37. D’Mello, S. K., Olney, A. M., Blanchard, N., Samei, B., Sun, X., Ward, B., & Kelly, S. (2015). Multimodal capture of teacher–student interactions for automated dialogic analysis in live classrooms. Proceedings of the 2015 ACM on International Conference on Multimodal Interaction (ICMI 2015) (pp. 557–566). New York: ACM.Google Scholar
  38. Donnelly, P., Blanchard, N., Samei, B., Olney, A. M., Sun, X., Ward, B., Kelly, S., Nystrand, M., & D’Mello, S. K. (2016). Automatic teacher modeling from live classroom audio. In L. Aroyo, S. D’Mello, J. Vassileva, & J. Blustein (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2016 ACM on International Conference on User Modeling, Adaptation, & Personalization (ACM UMAP 2016) (pp. 45–53). New York: ACM.Google Scholar
  39. Downey, D. B., Von Hippel, P. T., & Hughes, M. (2008). Are “failing” schools really failing? Removing the influence of nonschool factors from measures of school quality. Sociology of Education, 81, 242–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. DuFour, R., & Eaker, R. (1998). Professional learning communities at work: Best practices for enhancing student achievement. Bloomington: Solution Tree Press.Google Scholar
  41. Dworkin, A. G. (1987). Teacher burnout in the public school: Structural causes and consequences for children. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  42. Dworkin, A. G. (2009). Teacher burnout and teacher resilience: Assessing the impact of the school accountability movement. In L. J. Saha & A. G. Dworkin (Eds.), International handbook of research on teachers and teaching (pp. 491–510). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Emmer, E. T., Evertson, C. M., & Brophy, J. E. (1979). Stability of teacher effects in junior high classrooms. American Educational Research Journal, 16, 71–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Entwisle, D. R., Alexander, K. L., & Olson, L. S. (1997). Children, schools, and inequality. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  45. Fan, W., & Bains, L. (2008). The effects of teacher instructional practice on kindergarten mathematics achievement: A multi-level national investigation. International Journal of Applied Educational Studies, 3, 1–17.Google Scholar
  46. Feiman-Nemser, S. (2010). Multiple means of new teacher induction. In J. Wang, S. J. Odell, & R. T. Clift (Eds.), Past, present, and future research on teacher induction: An anthology for researchers, policy makers, and practitioners (pp. 15–30). Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield Education and the Association of Teacher Educators.Google Scholar
  47. Feldman, D. C. (1981). The multiple socialization of organization members. Academy of Management Review, 6, 309–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Frank, K. A. (2009). Quasi-ties: Directing resources to members of a collective. American Behavioral Scientist, 52, 1613–1645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Frank, K. A., Zhao, Y., & Borman, K. (2004). Social capital and the diffusion of innovations within organizations: The case of computer technology in schools. Sociology of Education, 77, 148–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gamoran, A. (2012). Improving teacher quality: Incentives are not enough. In S. Kelly (Ed.), Assessing teacher quality: Understanding teacher effects on instruction and achievement (pp. 201–214). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  51. Gamoran, A., Secada, W. G., & Marrett, C. B. (2000). The organizational context of teaching and learning: Changing theoretical perspectives. In M. T. Hallinan (Ed.), Handbook of the sociology of education (pp. 37–64). New York: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  52. Goldhaber, D., & Hanson, M. (2010). Is it just a bad class? Assessing the stability of measured teacher performance (CEDR Working Paper 3). University of Washington, Seattle.Google Scholar
  53. Goldhaber, D., Lavery, L., & Theobald, R. (2015). Uneven playing field? Assessing the teacher quality gap between advantaged and disadvantaged students. Educational Researcher, 44, 293–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Goldring, R., Gray, L., & Bitterman, A. (2013). Characteristics of public and private elementary and secondary school teachers in the United States: Results from the 2011–12 schools and staffing survey. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
  55. Greenwald, R., Hedges, L. V., & Laine, R. D. (1996). The effect of school resources on student achievement. Review of Educational Research, 66, 361–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Guarino, C. M., SantiBanez, L., & Daley, G. A. (2006). Teacher recruitment and retention: A review of the recent empirical literature. Review of Educational Research, 76, 173–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Halpin, A. W., & Croft, D. B. (1963). The organizational climate of schools. Chicago: Midwest Administration Center of the University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  58. Hamilton, L. (2012). Measuring teaching quality using student achievement tests: Lessons from educators’ responses to No Child Left Behind. In S. Kelly (Ed.), Assessing teacher quality: Understanding teacher effects on instruction and achievement (pp. 49–76). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  59. Hanushek, E. A., & Rivkin, S. G. (2004). How to improve the supply of high-quality teachers. Brookings Papers on Education Policy, 2004(1), 7–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Harris, D. N., & Sass, T. R. (2011). Teacher training, teacher quality and student achievement. Journal of Public Economics, 95, 798–812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hiebert, J., Stigler, J. W., Jacobs, J. K., Givvin, K. B., Garnier, H., Smith, M., Hollingsworth, H., Manaster, A., Wearne, D., & Gallimore, R. (2005). Mathematics teaching in the United States today (and tomorrow): Results from the TIMSS 1999 video study. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 27, 111–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hill, H. C., & Lubienski, S. T. (2007). Teachers’ mathematics knowledge for teaching and school context: A study of California teachers. Educational Policy, 21, 747–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hill, J., & Stearns, C. (2015). Education and certification qualifications of departmentalized public high school-level teachers of selected subjects: Evidence from the 2011–12 Schools and Staffing Survey. (NCES 2015-814). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  64. Hill, H. C., Rowan, B., & Ball, D. L. (2005). Effects of teachers’ mathematical knowledge for teaching on student achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 42, 371–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hill, C. J., Bloom, H. S., Black, A. R., & Lipsey, M. W. (2008). Empirical benchmarks for interpreting effect sizes in research. Child Development Perspectives, 2, 172–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ingersoll, R. M. (2001). Teacher turnover and teacher shortages: An organizational analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 38, 499–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ingersoll, R. M. (2003). Who controls teachers’ work? Power and accountability in America’s schools. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  68. Ingersoll, R. M., & Strong, M. (2011). The impact of induction and mentoring programs for beginning teachers: A critical review of the research. Review of Educational Research, 81, 201–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Isenberg, E., Max, J., Gleason, P., Potamites, L., Santillano, R., Hock, H., & Hansen, M. (2013). Access to effective teaching for disadvantaged students. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  70. Jacob, B. A. (2007). The challenges of staffing urban schools with effective teachers. The Future of Children, 17, 129–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Jencks, C., Smith, M., Acland, H., Bane, M. J., Cohen, D., Gintis, H., Heyns, B., & Michelson, S. (1972). Inequality: A reassessment of family and schooling in America. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  72. Jennings, J. L., & Corcoran, S. P. (2012). Beyond high stakes tests: Teacher effects on other educational outcomes. In S. Kelly (Ed.), Assessing teacher quality: Understanding teacher effects on instruction and achievement (pp. 77–96). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  73. Jennings, J. L., & Diprete, T. A. (2010). Teacher effects on social and behavioral skills in elementary school. Sociology of Education, 83, 135–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Jepsen, C. (2005). Teacher characteristics and student achievement: Evidence from teacher surveys. Journal of Urban Economics, 57, 302–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Jones, N., Youngs, P., & Frank, K. (2013). The role of school-based colleagues in shaping the commitment of novice special and general education teachers. Exceptional Children, 79, 365–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kalogrides, D., Loeb, S., & Beteille, T. (2013). Systematic sorting: Teacher characteristics and class assignments. Sociology of Education, 86, 103–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kane, T. J., & Staiger, D. O. (2012). Gathering feedback for teaching: Combining high-quality observations with student surveys and achievement gains. Seattle: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.Google Scholar
  78. Kane, T. J., Rockoff, J. E., & Staiger, D. O. (2008). What does certification tell us about teacher effectiveness? Evidence from New York City. Economics of Education Review, 27, 615–631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kane, T. J., McCaffrey, D. F., Miller, T., & Staiger, D. O. (2013). Have we identified effective teachers? Validating measures of effective teaching using random assignment. Seattle: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.Google Scholar
  80. Kapadia, K., Coca, V., & Easton, J. Q. (2007). Keeping new teachers: A first look at the influences of induction in the Chicago Public Schools. Chicago: Consortium on Chicago School Research, University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  81. Kardos, S. M., Johnson, S. M., Peske, H. G., Kauffman, D., & Liu, E. (2001). Counting on colleagues: New teachers encounter the professional cultures of their schools. Educational Administration Quarterly, 37, 250–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kelly, S. (2004). An event history analysis of teacher attrition: Salary, teacher tracking, and socially disadvantaged schools. Journal of Experimental Education, 72, 195–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kelly, S. (2009). Tracking teachers. In L. J. Saha & A. G. Dworkin (Eds.), The new international handbook of teachers and teaching (pp. 451–461). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kelly, S., & Caughlan, S. (2011). The Hollywood teachers’ perspective on authority. Pedagogies, 6, 46–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kennedy, M. M. (2010). The uncertain relationship between teacher assessment and teacher quality. In M. M. Kennedy (Ed.), Teacher assessment and the quest for teacher quality: A handbook (pp. 1–6). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  86. Koedel, C., & Betts, J. R. (2007). Re-examining the role of teacher quality in the educational production function (Working Paper). University of Missouri, Columbia.Google Scholar
  87. Konstantopoulos, S. (2009). Effects of teachers on minority and disadvantaged students’ achievement in the early grades. The Elementary School Journal, 110, 92–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Konstantopoulos, S. (2011). Teacher effects in early grades: Evidence from a randomized study. Teachers College Record, 113, 1541–1565.Google Scholar
  89. Konstantopoulos, S. (2012). Teacher effects: Past, present, and future. In S. Kelly (Ed.), Assessing teacher quality: Understanding teacher effects on instruction and achievement (pp. 33–48). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  90. Konstantopoulos, S., & Chung, V. (2011). The persistence of teacher effects in elementary grades. American Educational Research Journal, 48, 361–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Konstantopoulos, S., & Sun, M. (2012). Is the persistence of teacher effects in early grades larger for lower-performing students? American Journal of Education, 118, 309–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Kraft, M. A., & Gilmour, A. F. (2016). Can principals promote teacher development as evaluators? A case study of principals’ views and experiences. Educational Administration Quarterly, 52, 711–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Kukla-Acevedo, S. (2009). Do teacher characteristics matter? New results on the effects of teacher preparation on student achievement. Economics of Education Review, 28, 49–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Ladd, H. F., & Sorensen, L. C. (2015). Do master’s degrees matter? Advanced degrees, career paths, and the effectiveness of teachers (CALDER Working Paper No. 136).Google Scholar
  95. Lankford, H., Loeb, S., & Wyckoff, J. (2002). Teacher sorting and the plight of urban schools: A descriptive analysis. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 24, 37–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Lankford, H., Loeb, S., McEachin, A., Miller, L. C., & Wyckoff, J. (2014). Who enters teaching? Encouraging evidence that the status of teaching is improving. Educational Researcher, 43, 444–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Levine, J., & Shapiro, N. S. (2004). Sustaining and improving learning communities. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  98. Lippman, L., Burns, S., & McArthur, E. (1996). Urban schools: The challenge of location and poverty. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
  99. Lortie, D. C. (1975). School teacher: A sociological study. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  100. Malkus, N., Ralph, J., Hoyer, K. M., & Sparks, D. (2015). Teaching vacancies and difficult-to-staff teaching positions in public schools. Washington DC: National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
  101. Mihaly, K., McCaffrey, D. F., Staiger, D. O., & Lockwood, J. R. (2013). A composite estimator of effective teaching. Seattle: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.Google Scholar
  102. Mosteller, F., Light, R. J., & Sachs, J. A. (1996). Sustained inquiry in education: Lessons learned from skill grouping and class size. Harvard Educational Review, 66, 797–842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Nye, B., Hedges, L. V., & Konstantopoulos, S. (2000). The effects of small classes on academic achievement: The results of the Tennessee class size experiment. American Educational Research Journal, 37, 123–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Olney, A. M., Kelly, S., Samei, B., Donnelly, P., & D’Mello, S. K. (2017). Assessing teacher questions in classrooms. In R. Sottilare, A. Graesser, X. Hu, & G. Goodwin (Eds.), Design recommendations for intelligent tutoring systems: Assessment (Vol. 5). Orlando: Army Research Laboratory. 261–274.Google Scholar
  105. Penuel, W. R., Riel, M., Krause, A., & Frank, K. A. (2009). Analyzing teachers’ professional interactions in a school as social capital: A social network approach. Teachers College Record, 11, 124–163.Google Scholar
  106. Penuel, W. R., Riel, M., Joshi, A., Pearlman, L., Kim, C. M., & Frank, K. A. (2010). The alignment of the informal and formal organizational supports for reform: Implications for improving teaching in schools. Educational Administration Quarterly, 46, 57–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Pogodzinski, B. (2012). Socialization of novice teachers. Journal of School Leadership, 22, 982–1023.Google Scholar
  108. Pogodzinski, B., Youngs, P., & Frank, K. A. (2013). Collegial climate and novice teachers’ intent to remain teaching. American Journal of Education, 120, 27–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Putnam, R. T., & Borko, H. (2000). What do new views of knowledge and thinking have to say about research on teacher learning? Educational Researcher, 29, 4–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Quality Counts: Preparing to launch: Early childhood’s academic countdown. [Special Issue]. (2015). Education Week, 34(16).Google Scholar
  111. Quality Counts: The global challenge. [Special Issue]. (2012). Education Week, 31(16).Google Scholar
  112. Raudenbush, S. W., Rowan, B., & Cheong, Y. F. (1992). Contextual effects on the self perceived efficacy of high school teachers. Sociology of Education, 65, 150–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Reardon, S. F. (2011). The widening academic achievement gap between the rich and poor: New evidence and possible explanations. In G. J. Duncan & R. J. Murnane (Eds.), Whither opportunity: Rising inequality, schools, and children’s life chances (pp. 91–116). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  114. Riehl, C., & Sipple, J. W. (1996). Making the most of time and talent: Secondary school organizational climates, teaching task environments, and teacher commitment. American Educational Research Journal, 33, 873–901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Rivkin, S. G., Hanushek, E. A., & Kain, J. F. (2005). Teachers, schools, and academic achievement. Econometrica, 73, 417–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Rosenbaum, J. (2001). Beyond college for all: Career paths for the forgotten half. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  117. Rosenholtz, S. J. (1989). Teachers’ workplace: The social organization of schools. New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  118. Rosenshine, B. (1970). The stability of teacher effects upon student achievement. Review of Educational Research, 40, 647–662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Rothstein, J., & Mathis, W. (2013). Review of “have we identified effective teachers?” and “A composite estimator of effective teaching: Culminating findings from the Measures of Effective Teaching project”. Boulder: National Education Policy Center.Google Scholar
  120. Samei, B., Olney, A., Kelly, S., Nystrand, M., D’Mello, S., Blanchard, N., Sun, X., Glaus, M., & Graesser, A. (2014). Domain independent assessment of dialogic properties of classroom discourse. In J. Stamper, Z. Pardos, M. Mavrikis & B. M. McLaren (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th international conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM 2014) (pp. 233–236). International Educational Data Mining Society.Google Scholar
  121. Sanders, W. L., & Horn, S. P. (1998). Research findings from the Tennessee value-added assessment system (TVAAS) database: Implications for educational evaluation and research. Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 12, 247–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Sass, T. R., Hannaway, J., Xu, Z., Figlio, D. N., & Feng, L. (2010). Value added of teachers in high-poverty schools and lower poverty schools. Journal of Urban Economics, 72, 104–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Schacter, J., & Thum, Y. M. (2004). Paying for high- and low-quality teaching. Economics of Education Review, 23, 411–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Scheerens, J., & Bosker, R. J. (1997). The foundations of educational effectiveness. New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  125. Schon, D. A. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner: Toward a new design for teaching and learning the professions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  126. Schultz, L. M. (2014). Inequitable dispersion: Mapping the distribution of highly qualified teachers in St. Louis metropolitan elementary schools. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 22(90), 1–24.Google Scholar
  127. Smith, T. M., & Ingersoll, R. M. (2004). Reducing teacher turnover: What are the components of effective induction? American Educational Research Journal, 41, 681–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Smith, T. M., Rogers, G. T., Alsalam, N., Perie, M., Mahoney, R. P., & Martin, V. (1994). The condition of education 1994. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
  129. Staton, A. Q., & Hunt, S. L. (1992). Teacher socialization: Review and conceptualization. Communication Education, 41(2), 109–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Stigler, J. W., & Hiebert, J. (1999). The teaching gap. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  131. Strunk, K. O., Weinstein, T. L., & Makkonen, R. (2014). Sorting out the signal: Do multiple measures of teachers’ effectiveness provide consistent information to teachers and principals? Education Policy Analysis Archives, 22(100), 1–41.Google Scholar
  132. Tagiuri, R. (1968). The concept of organizational climate. In R. Tagiuri & G. H. Litwin (Eds.), Organizational climate (pp. 11–32). Boston: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  133. Talbert, J. (1992). Teacher tracking: Exacerbating inequalities in the high school. Revision of a paper presented at the meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Boston, April 16–20, 1990.Google Scholar
  134. Van Maanen, J., & Schein, E. H. (1979). Toward a theory of organizational socialization. In B. Staw (Ed.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 1, pp. 209–264). Greenwich: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  135. Vigdor, J. L. (2011). School desegregation and the Black–White test score gap. In G. J. Duncan & R. J. Murnane (Eds.), Whither opportunity: Rising inequality, schools, and children’s life chances (pp. 443–464). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  136. Wayne, A. J., & Youngs, P. (2003). Teacher characteristics and student achievement gains: A review. Review of Educational Research, 73, 89–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Weick, K. E., & Roberts, K. H. (1993). Collective mind in organizations: Heedful interrelating on flight decks. Administrative Science Quarterly, 38, 357–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Weiss, I. R., Pasley, J. D., Smith, P. S., Banilower, E. R., & Heck, D. J. (2003). Looking inside the classroom: A study of K–12mathematics and science education in the United States. Chapel Hill: Horizon Research.Google Scholar
  139. Wills, J. S., & Sandholtz, J. H. (2009). Constrained professionalism: Dilemmas of teaching in the face of test-based accountability. Teachers College Record, 111, 1065–1114.Google Scholar
  140. Wilson, S. M., Floden, R. E., & Ferrini-Mundy, J. (2001). Teacher preparation research: Current knowledge, gaps, and recommendations. University of Washington: Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy.Google Scholar
  141. Yoon, K. S., Duncan, T., Lee, S. W.-Y., Scarloss, B., & Shapley, K. L. (2007). Reviewing the evidence on how teacher professional development affects student achievement. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  142. Youngs, P. (2007). District induction policy and new teachers’ experiences: An examination of local policy implementation in Connecticut. Teachers College Record, 109, 797–837.Google Scholar
  143. Yuan, K., Le, V.-N., McCaffrey, D. F., Marsh, J. A., Hamilton, L. S., Stecher, B. M., & Springer, M. G. (2013). Incentive pay programs do not affect teacher motivation or reported practices: Results from three randomized studies. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 35, 3–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Wayne State UniversityDetroitUSA

Personalised recommendations