Factoring n and the Number of Points of Kummer Hypersurfaces mod n

Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10737)


In this paper we describe the reduction of factorization of a square-free integer n to the problem of determining the number of points in \(\mathbb {Z}_n^{d+1}\) on twists of Kummer hypersurfaces \(y^k = f(x_1,\ldots , x_d)\,{\text {mod}}\,n\), where \(f(x_1,\ldots , x_d)\in \mathbb {Z}_n[x_1,\ldots , x_d]\) and \(k>1\). This reduction is expected to be polynomial time (in \({\text {log}}\,n\)) for small k and fixed number of prime divisors of n provided that some necessary for this reduction conditions are satisfied. This extends the known reduction of factorization to determining the number of points on elliptic curves \(y^2 = x^3 +ax +b\) over \(\mathbb {Z}_n\). In particular our reduction implies that factorization of n can be reduced to determining the number of points on quadrics in \(\mathbb {Z}_n^{d}\), \(d>1\), which extends the known reduction of factorization to determining the order of \(\mathbb {Z}_n^*\). We also describe the reduction of factorization to determine the number of points in \(\mathbb P^2(\mathbb {Z}_n)\) on superelliptic curves \(y^k = f(x_1)\,{\text {mod}}\,n\). To study the complexity of these reductions we introduce some notions and prove useful facts for a more precise analysis. In greater detail we consider the case of the reduction when \(n=pq\) is a product of two primes and \(k=2\).


Dirichlet characters Least r-th power nonresidue Integer factorization Reductions Elliptic and hyperelliptic curve Kummer surface 


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Warsaw School of EconomicsWarszawaPoland
  2. 2.Faculty of Mathematics Informatics and MechanicsWarsawPoland

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