Entangled Proteins: Knots, Slipknots, Links, and Lassos

  • Joanna I. SulkowskaEmail author
  • Piotr Sułkowski
Part of the Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences book series (SSSOL, volume 189)


In recent years the studies of entangled proteins have grown into the whole new, interdisciplinary and rapidly developing field of research. Here we present various types of entangled proteins studied within this field, which form knots, slipknots, links, and lassos. We discuss their geometric features and indicate what biological and physical role the entanglement plays. We also discuss mathematical tools necessary to analyze such structures and present databases and servers assembling information about entangled proteins: KnotProt, LinkProt, and LassoProt.



This work has been financed from the budget for science in the years 2016-2019 [#0003/ID3/2016/64 MNiSW – Ideas Plus], EMBO [#2057 Installation Grant], and National Science Centre [#2012/07/E/NZ1/01900] to J.I.S. The work of P.S. has been supported by the ERC Starting Grant no. 335739 “Quantum fields and knot homologies” funded by the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre of New Technologies, University of WarsawWarsawPoland
  2. 2.Faculty of PhysicsUniversity of WarsawWarsawPoland
  3. 3.Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical PhysicsCalifornia Institute of TechnologyPasadenaUSA

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