Prognosis of Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

  • Shinsuke Yasuda


It is still a matter of debate whether mortality rate is higher in SLE patients with neuropsychiatric (NP) symptoms compared to those without them. Probably this situation is based on the difference in the character of each cohort and also on the vagueness of the definition/diagnosis of NPSLE, even after 1999. Although NPSLE has been repeatedly detected as one of the predictive factors for poor prognosis, NPSLE itself is not a common direct cause of death. It is more likely that patients with NPSLE tend to suffer from more recalcitrant lupus disease activities requiring intense immunosuppressive treatment or sometimes too severe to control. However, more and more advanced brain imaging, understanding on neuroscience and pathophysiology of NPSLE, and novel targeted-therapies are emerging. Thus we would expect better prognosis, cognitive/psychological functions and qualities of life for patients with NPSLE in near future.


Prognosis Mortality Irreversible damage Cerebrovascular disease Cognitive dysfunction 



I appreciate supports and advice from Drs. Yuichiro Fujieda, Kenji Oku, Yuka Shimizu, Naoki Ohnishi, and Tatsuya Atsumi.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Rheumatology, Endocrinology and Nephrology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of MedicineHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan

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