The Division of Labour Within Households: Men’s Increased Participation?
Unequal division of domestic labor has been seen as a one of the most commonly documented feature on gender inequality in the western countries. The relevance of studying the division of labour in the household has actualized as female participation rates in paid labour have increased and changes in employment systems have taken place. Division of labor refers to the amount and share of time men and women spend in paid and unpaid work. Unpaid work includes domestic chores such as cleaning, repairs, preparing meals, but also caring for children. Unpaid work is usually divided in three subgroups: core household tasks i.e. housework, repairs and household upkeep and child care. Paid and unpaid work together comprises so-called total work time. The main international trend from 1960s onward has been that men have increased and women decreased their time spend in unpaid work. This convergence has been as result of decrease in women’s, but also increases in men’s time spend in unpaid work.
KeywordsGender Household Housework Unpaid work
- Baxter, J. (1997). Gender equality and participation in housework: A cross-national perspective. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 28, 220–247.Google Scholar
- Becker, G. S. (1993). A treatise on the family (Enlarged ed.). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Bond, S., & Sales, J. (2001). Household Work in the UK: An Analysis of the British Household Panel Survey 1994. Work, Employment and Society, 15(2), 233–250.Google Scholar
- Crompton, R., & Lyonette, C. (2005). The new gender essentialism–domestic and family ‘choices’ and their relation to attitudes. The British Journal of Sociology, 56(4), 601–620.Google Scholar
- Esping-Andersen, G. (2009). The incomplete revolution. Adapting to women’s new roles. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
- Gershuny, J. (2000). Changing times. Work and leisure in postindustrial society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Gershuny, J. (2004). Time through the life course, in the family. In J. Scott, J. Treas, & M. Richards (Eds.), The Blackwell companion to the sociology of families (pp. 158–178). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Gershuny, J. (2017). Informal, but not ‘an economy’. In G. Crow & J. Ellis (Eds.), Revisiting divisions of labour: The impacts and legacies of a modern sociological classic (pp. 111–125). Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
- Gershuny, J., Godwin, M., & Jones, S. (1994). The domestic labour revolution: A process of lagged adaptation? In M. Anderson, F. Bechhofer, & J. Gershuny (Eds.), The social and political economy of the household (pp. 151–197). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Hakim, C. (2000). Work-lifestyle choices in the 21st century: Preference theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Jacobs, J., & Gerson, K. (2004). The time divide: Work. Family and Gender Inequality: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Kan, M. Y., & Gershuny, J. (2009). Gender and time use over the life-course. In M. Brynin & J. Ermisch (Eds.), Changing relationships. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Kan, M. Y., & Gershuny, J. (2010). Gender segregation and bargaining in domestic labour: Evidence from longitudinal time use data. In R. Crompton, J. Scott & C. Lyonnette (Eds.), Gender Inequalities in the 21st Century. Aldershot: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
- Lesnard, L. (2005). The effects of the family work day on family time. CREST-INSEE working papers 25.Google Scholar
- Moen, P. (2003). It’s about time. Couples and Careers: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
- OECD. (2005). Babies and bosses—Reconciling work and family life (Vol. 4): Canada, Finland, Sweden and the United Kingdom. OECD: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
- Oinas, T. (2010). Domestic division of labour in dual-earner households. Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä. (Jyväskylä Studies in Education, Psychology and Social Research 402).Google Scholar
- Ruppanner, L., Branden, M., & Turunen, J. (2017). Does unequal housework lead to divorce? Evidence from Sweden. Sociology. https://doi.org/10.1177/0038038516674664.
- Wright, E. O. (1997). Class counts. Comparative studies in class analysis. Cambridge: University Press.Google Scholar