Advertisement

Virtual Sex: Good, Bad or Ugly?

  • Hoshang Kolivand
  • Abdoulvahab Ehsani Rad
  • David Tully
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10715)

Abstract

Computers have created a new world which enables people to have different experiences that may not be available or appropriate to have in the real world. Sexual activities are also a part this. Nowadays, sex relationships between humans and robots are set to become commonplace. The advances of new technologies need to be taken into account for new progress. It is not uncommon from the first neurophysiological evidence of humans’ ability to empathise with robots. Sex robots are going to be more focused in robotic industry in case of how they look and what rolls that can play. This study attempts to critically review the characters and characteristics of cutting edge ideas of virtual sex in real and virtual environments to provide researchers with backgrounds on what is going on in the future of sexual human needs. We have tried to find out advances, advantages and disadvantages sex with robots and virtual objects in different aspects. Most importantly, in this investigation we tried to find appropriate answers for some of the highlighted questions against virtual sex.

References

  1. 1.
    Wasen, K.: Replacement of highly educated surgical assistants by robot technology in working life: paradigm shift in the service sector. Int. J. Soc. Robot. 2(4), 431–438 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Oborn, E., Barrett, M., Darzi, A.: Robots and service innovation in health care. J. Health Serv. Res. Policy 16(1), 46–50 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    McBride, J.: The advent of postmodern robotic technoreligiosity. J. Eval. Technol. 25(2), 25–38 (2015)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Coeckelbergh, M.: The spirit in the network: models for spirituality in a technological culture. Zygon® 45(4), 957–978 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hagis, C.: History of robots (2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Driscoll, H.: Will 2016 be the year of the ‘sexbot’? (2016)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Loebner, H.: Being a john. In: Elias, J., Bullough, V., Elias, V., Brewer, G. (eds.) Prostitution: On Whores, Hustlers, and Johns (1998)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Asimov, I.: I, robot (2004)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yeoman, I., Mars, M.: Robots, men and sex tourism. Futures 44(4), 365–371 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yeoman, I.: Tomorrow’s Tourist: Scenarios & Trends. Routledge, London (2009)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Levy, D.: Love and Sex with Robots: The Evolution of Human-Robot Relationships. Harper Collins, New York (2007)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Levy, D.: A history of machines with sexual functions: past, present and robot. In: EURON Workshop on Roboethics, Genoa (2006)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sullins, J.P.: Robots, love, and sex: the ethics of building a love machine. IEEE Trans. Affect. Comput. 3(4), 398–409 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    SEXYBOTS: Coolest robots to have sex with today [nsfw] (2016)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Christensen, H.: Trust Me I’m A Robot. The Economist, June 8th 2006 (2006)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Turkle, S.: The Second Self: Computers and the Human Spirit. MIT Press, Cambridge (2005)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hinds-Addow, S.: Love with robots will be as normal as love with other humans (2014)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Maines, R.: Love+sex with robots: the evolution of human-robot relationships (Levy, D.; 2007) [book review]. IEEE Technol. Soc. Mag. 27(4), 10–12 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pearson, I.: By 2050, human-on-robot sex will be more common than human-on-human sex, says report (2016)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Scheutz, M., Arnold, T.: Are we ready for sex robots? In: The Eleventh ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human Robot Interaction, pp. 351–358. IEEE Press (2016)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Charles, Q.C.: Forecast: Sex and marriage with robots by 2050 (2017)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yulianto, B., et al.: Philosophy of information technology: sex robot and its ethical issues. Int. J. Soc. Ecol. Sustain. Dev. (IJSESD) 6(4), 67–76 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Amuda, Y.J., Tijani, I.B.: Ethical and legal implications of sex robot: an islamic perspective. OIDA Int. J. Sustain. Dev. 3(06), 19–28 (2012)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Brooks, A.G., Arkin, R.C.: Behavioral overlays for non-verbal communication expression on a humanoid robot. Auton. Robots 22(1), 55–74 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    LiveScience: Forecast: Sex and marriage with robots by 2050 (2016)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Forst, A.: Deus ex machina. n.d. groks science radio show and podcast (2015)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Epley, N., Waytz, A., Cacioppo, J.T.: On seeing human: a three-factor theory of anthropomorphism. Psychol. Rev. 114(4), 864 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Epley, N., Akalis, S., Waytz, A., Cacioppo, J.T.: Creating social connection through inferential reproduction loneliness and perceived agency in gadgets, gods, and greyhounds. Psychol. Sci. 19(2), 114–120 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gillespie, C.: Lars and the real girl (2007). Last access 2016Google Scholar
  30. 30.
  31. 31.
    SEXBOT: Could fall in love with robots? (2017)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kolivand, M., Kolivand, H.: Virtual child pornography and utilitarianism. Int. J. Inf. Technol. Comput. Sci. (IJITCS) 19(2), 41–50 (2015)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lin, P., Abney, K., Bekey, G.: Robot ethics: mapping the issues for a mechanized world. Artif. Intell. 175(5), 942–949 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gee, T.J.: Why female sex robots are more dangerous than you think (2017)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ishiguro, H.: Hiroshi ishiguro laboratories (2017)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
  37. 37.
    Samani, H.A.: Lovotics: Loving Robots. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, Saarbrücken (2012)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fulbright, Y., Roxxxy, M.: The ‘woman’ of your dreams (2016)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hines, D.: Roxxxy, the world’s first life-size robot girlfriend (2016)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Brents, B.G., Hausbeck, K.: Marketing sex: us legal brothels and late capitalist consumption. Sexualities 10(4), 425–439 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Richardson, K.: Statement on the production of child sex dolls (2016)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Richardson, K.: Campaign against sex robots (2016)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Richardson, K.: Child sex dolls are linked to child abuse as they ‘become proxy for paedophiles’ says expert (2017)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Velez, M.: Current and Future Relationships Between Robots and Humans. Ph.D. thesis, University of St. Thomas (2015)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    DeLamater, J.D.: The social control of human sexuality (1989)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Levy, D., Loebner, H.: Robot prostitutes as alternatives to human sex workers (2007)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Colmenares, A.: Rent a sex doll in japan (2007). Last access 2016Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gakuran, M.: Love doll rental in Japan (2009). Last access 2016Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Chic, S.L.: Siumi le chic London love sex real doll (2016)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kolivand, H., Hasan Zakaria, A., Sunar, M.S.: Shadow generation in mixed reality: a comprehensive survey. IETE Techn. Rev. 32(1), 3–15 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Blitz, M.J.: Freedom of 3d thought: the first amendment in virtual reality, the. Cardozo L. Rev. 30, 1141 (2008)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kolivand, H., Sunar, M.S.: Covering photo-realistic properties of outdoor components with the effects of sky color in mixed reality. Multimedia Tools Appl. 72(3), 2143–2162 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kolivand, H., Sunar, M.S.: Realistic real-time outdoor rendering in augmented reality. PloS One 9(9), e108334 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kinstlinger, N.: Virtual reality sex suits are a thing now and don’t pretend you’re not curious (2016)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lindenlab: Create virtual experiences (2016)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Craft, A.J.: Love 2.0: a quantitative exploration of sex and relationships in the virtual world second life. Arch. Sex. Behav. 41(4), 939–947 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Wohn, D.Y.: 3D virtual world creates new genre of cyber sex. In: Proceedings of IADIS International Conference: ICT, Society and Human Beings (2009)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Wikipedia: Rape statistics (2016)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Brey, P.: Virtual reality and computer simulation. In: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics, p. 361 (2008)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Levy, N.: Virtual child pornography: the eroticization of inequality. Ethics Inf. Technol. 4(4), 319–323 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Sandin, P.: Virtual child pornography and utilitarianism. J. Inf. Commun. Ethics Soc. 2(4), 217–223 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Brown, D., Sarah, K.: Sex, sexuality, sexting, and sex ed. Integr. Res. Serv. 76, 12–17 (2009)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Subrahmanyam, K., Greenfield, P.M., Tynes, B.: Constructing sexuality and identity in an online teen chat room. J. Appl. Dev. Psychol. 25(6), 651–666 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Read, S.J., Miller, L.C., Appleby, P.R., Nwosu, M.E., Reynaldo, S., Lauren, A., Putcha, A.: Socially optimized learning in a virtual environment: Reducing risky sexual behavior among men who have sex with men. Hum. Commun. Res. 32(1), 1–34 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Allameh-Al-Tabatabai, S.Mu.: Tafsir al mizan (2017)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Almighty: Quran. Verse (30:21), ar-Rum 30:21Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hoshang Kolivand
    • 1
  • Abdoulvahab Ehsani Rad
    • 2
  • David Tully
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceLiverpool John Moores UniversityLiverpoolUK
  2. 2.Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Shahrood BranchIslamic Azad UniversityShahroodIran

Personalised recommendations