Neuroimmune and Systemic Manifestations of Neuroinflammation in the Temporomandibular Joint and Related Disorders

  • André Barkhordarian
  • Francesco Chiappelli
  • G. Gary DemerjianEmail author


The human temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a bilateral articulation between the mandible and the temporal bone of the skull. Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are a group of pathologies affecting the TMJ, the muscles of mastication, and the related ligaments causing the joint dysfunction. TMD is most often manifested as internal derangements and is considered to be among the most complex and yet common conditions involving orofacial pain. Pain is a common symptom, due to the sensory innervations of the joint and related muscles/ligaments, followed by inflammation as a result of damage and stress upon the surrounding neurons and tissues.Neuroinflammation, mediated in part by chemokine activity and release of inflammatory cytokines, contributes to increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the potential for continued pathogen and immune cell invasion into the brain. Inflammatory response of the CNS is involved in recruitment of peripheral cells to the brain, which may promote glial cell hyper-activation and neuronal damage.



Alzheimer’s disease


Blood-brain barrier


Calcitonin gene-related peptide




Dorsal root ganglion


Gasserian ganglion


Inducible nitric oxide synthase


IFN-β-induced protein 10




Monocyte chemotactic protein 1


Macrophage colony-stimulating factor


Major histocompatibility complex


Macrophage migration inhibitory factor


Chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-1


Multiple sclerosis


Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells




Pathogen-associated molecular patterns


Parkinson’s disease


Prostaglandins E2


Protein kinase C


Pattern recognition receptors


Receptor for advanced glycation end products


Receptor activator of nuclear factor κB


Receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand


Retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γ thymus


Substance P


Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3


Toll-like receptors


Temporomandibular disorders


Temporomandibular joint


Transient receptor potential V1 receptor


Vanilloid receptor 1


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • André Barkhordarian
    • 1
    • 2
  • Francesco Chiappelli
    • 1
    • 2
  • G. Gary Demerjian
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.UCLA School of DentistryLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Evidence-Based Decisions Practice-Based Research NetworkLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Center for TMJ & Sleep TherapyGlendoraUSA

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