Advertisement

Gendered Embodiment

  • Katherine MasonEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research book series (HSSR)

Abstract

This chapter introduces social theories about gender and the body. Rather than focusing on sex (that is, the physiological characteristics typically associated with maleness and femaleness) this chapter instead looks at how cultural norms for femininity and masculinity shape people’s relationship to their own bodies and the bodies of others. Examining the association of masculinity with active bodily subjects—and of femininity with passive bodily objects—this chapter studies the ways bodies reproduce and, sometimes, challenge gendered power dynamics.

Keywords

Embodiment Intersectionality Discipline Objectification 

References

  1. Ahmed, S. (2010). The promise of happiness. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Armstrong, E. A., England, P., & Fogarty, C. K. (2012). Accounting for women’s orgasm and sexual enjoyment in college hookups and relationships. American Sociological Review, 77(3), 435–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Averett, S., & Korenman, S. (1996). The economic reality of the beauty myth. Journal of Human Resources, 31, 304–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barber, K., & Bridges, T. (2017). Marketing manhood in a ‘post-feminist’ age. Contexts, 16(2), 38–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barounis, C. (2009). Cripping heterosexuality, queering able-bodiedness: murderball, brokeback mountain and the contested masculine body. Journal of Visual Culture, 8(1), 54–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baynton, D. C. (2016). Disability and the justification of inequality in american history. In L. Davis (Ed.), The disability studies reader (5th ed.). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Berger, J. (1972). Ways of seeing. New York: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  8. Bettie, J. (2003). Women without class: Girls, race, and identity. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bogle, K. (2008). Hooking up: Sex, dating, and relationships on campus. New York: NYU Press.Google Scholar
  10. Bordo, S. (1999). The male body: A new look at men in public and in private. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.Google Scholar
  11. Bordo, S. (2003[1993]). Unbearable weight: Feminism, western culture, and the body, 10th anniversary edition. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  12. Bridges, T., & Pascoe, C. J. (2014). Hybrid masculinities: New directions in the sociology of men and masculinities. Sociology Compass, 8(3), 246–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carlson, J. (2010). The female significant in all-women’s amateur roller derby. Sociology of Sport Journal, 27, 428–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carter, J. A. (2015). Revealing the ‘Absent Body’: Embodied participant observation in women’s tackle football. http://sectionbodyembodiment.weebly.com/blog/revealing-the-absent-body-embodied-participant-observation-in-womens-tackle-football.
  15. Cho, S. K. (1997). Converging stereotypes in racialized sexual harassment: Where the model minority meets Suzie Wong. Journal of Gender, Race, & Justice, 1, 177–211.Google Scholar
  16. Clare, E. (2015[1999]). Exile and pride: Disability, queerness, and liberation. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Clare, E. (2017). Brilliant imperfection: Grappling with cure. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Collins, P. H. (2005). Black sexual politics: African Americans, gender, and the new racism. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. Connell, R.W. (2005[1995]). Masculinities (2nd ed.,). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  20. Cooper, M. (2015). Misty Copeland is promoted to principal dancer at American Ballet Theater. New York Times, June 30, 2015.Google Scholar
  21. Courtenay, W. H. (2000). Constructions of masculinity and their influence on men’s wellbeing: A theory of gender and health. Social Science and Medicine, 50(10), 1385–1401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Craig, M. L. (2014). Sorry I don’t dance: Why men refuse to move. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. de Beauvoir, S. (2011[1949]). The second sex (C. Borde & S. Malovany-Chevallier Trans.). New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  24. Dyvik, S. (2016). ‘Valhalla rising’: Gender, embodiment, and experience in military memoirs. Security Dialogue, 47(2), 133–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Edelman, L. (2004). No future: Queer theory and the death drive. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ehrenreich, B., & English, D. (2005 [1978]). For her own good: Two centuries of the experts’ advice to women. New York: Anchor Books.Google Scholar
  27. Ezzell, M. (2009). ‘Barbie Dolls’ on the pitch: Identity work, defensive othering, and inequality in women’s rugby. Social Problems, 56(1), 111–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fausto-Sterling, A. (1992[1985]). Myths of gender: Biological theories about women and men (2nd ed.,). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  29. Ferguson, A. A. (2000). Bad boys: Public schools in the making of black masculinity. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Foucault, M. (1995[1977]). Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison (A. Sheridan Trans.). New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  31. Fraser, N., & Gordon, L. (1994). A genealogy of dependency: Tracing a keyword of the U.S. welfare state. Signs, 19(2), 309–336.Google Scholar
  32. Fung, R. (2008). Looking for my penis: The eroticized asian in gay video porn. In K. A. Ono (Ed.), A companion to Asian American studies. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
  33. Garland-Thomson, R. (2002). Integrating disability, transforming feminist theory. NWSA Journal, 14(3), 1–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Grazian, D. (2007). The girl hunt: Urban nightlife and the performance of masculinity as collective activity. Symbolic Interaction, 30(2), 221–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Halberstam, J. (1997). Mackdaddy, superfly, rapper: Gender, race, and masculinity in the drag king scene. Social Text, 52(53), 104–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Halberstam, J. (2011). The queer art of failure. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hammer, G. (2012). Blind women’s appearance management: Negotiating normalcy between discipline and pleasure. Gender & Society, 26(3), 406–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hoang, K. (2014). Competing technologies of embodiment: Pan-asian modernity and third world dependency in vietnam’s contemporary sex industry. Gender & Society, 28(4), 513–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hochschild, AR. (2012[1983]). The managed heart: Commercialization of human feeling. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  40. Hoffman, K., Trawalter, S., Axt, J., & Normal Oliver, M. (2016). Racial bias in pain assessment and treatment recommendations, and false beliefs about biological differences between blacks and whites. PNAS, 113(16), 4296–4301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kafer, A. (2016). At the same time, out of time: Ashley X. In Lennard Davis (Ed.), The disability studies reader (5th ed.). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  42. Kandiyoti, D. (1988). Bargaining with patriarchy. Gender & Society, 2(3), 274–290.Google Scholar
  43. Kim, E. (2011). Asexuality in disability narratives. Sexualities, 14(4), 479–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kimmel, M. (2005). The history of men: Essays on the history of American and British masculinities. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  45. Lande, B. (2007). Breathing like a soldier: Culture incarnate. The Sociological Review, 55(1), 95–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lei, J. L. (2003). (Un)necessary toughness?: Those ‘loud Black girls’ and those ‘quiet Asian boys’. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 34(2), 158–181.Google Scholar
  47. Livingston, J. (1990). Paris is burning (film). Miramax.Google Scholar
  48. Lorber, J. (1993). Believing is seeing: Biology as ideology. Gender & Society, 7(4), 568–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Love, H. (2007). Feeling backward: Loss and the politics of queer history. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Luttrell, W. (2003). Pregnant bodies, fertile minds: Gender, race, and the schooling of pregnant teens. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  51. MacKinnon, C. (1982). Feminism, marxism, method, and the state: An agenda for theory. Signs, 7(3), 515–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Malcom, N. (2006). ‘Shaking it off’ and ‘toughing it out’: Socialization to pain and injury in girls’ softball. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 35(5), 495–525.Google Scholar
  53. Martin, K. (1998). Becoming a gendered body: Practices of preschools. American Sociological Review, 63(4), 494–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mason, K. (2012). The unequal weight of discrimination: Gender, body size, and income inequality. Social Problems, 59(3), 411–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Messner, M., Dunbar, M., & Hunt, D. (2000). The televised sports manhood formula. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 24(4), 380–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Moore, S. E. H. (2010). Is the healthy body gendered? Toward a feminist critique of the new paradigm of health. Body and Society, 16(2), 95–118.Google Scholar
  57. Morris, E. (2005). ‘Tuck in that shirt!’ Race, class, gender, and discipline in an urban school. Sociological Perspectives, 48(1), 25–48.Google Scholar
  58. Mulvey, L. (1975). Visual pleasure and narrative cinema. Screen, 16(3), 6–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ortner, S. (1972). Is female to male as nature is to culture? Feminist Studies, 1(2), 5–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ortner, S. (1991). Reading America: Preliminary notes on class and culture. In R. G. Fox (Ed.), Recapturing anthropology: Working in the present. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press.Google Scholar
  61. Paradis, E. (2012). Boxers, briefs, or bras? Bodies, gender, and change in the boxing gym. Body & Society, 18(2), 82–109.Google Scholar
  62. Pascoe, C. J. (2007). Dude, you’re a fag: Masculinity and sexuality in high school. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  63. Pavlidis, A., & Fullagar, S. (2015). The pain and pleasure of roller derby: Thinking through affect and subjectification. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 18(5), 483–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Peralta, R. (2007). College alcohol use and the embodiment of hegemonic masculinity among European American men. Sex Roles, 56(11–12), 741–756.Google Scholar
  65. Petrzela, N. M. (2017). Why Trump’s diet is bad for America’s health. The Washington Post. June 28, 2017.Google Scholar
  66. Raby, R. (2010). ‘Tank tops are OK but I don’t want to see her thong’: Girls’ engagements with secondary school dress codes. Youth & Society, 41(3), 333–356.Google Scholar
  67. Rich, A. (1980). Compulsory heterosexuality and lesbian existence. Signs, 5(4), 631–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Risman, B. (1998). Gender vertigo: American families in transition. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Rubin, G. (1975). The traffic in women: Notes on the ‘political economy’ of sex. In R. R. Reiter (Ed.), Toward an anthropology of women. New York: Monthly Review Press.Google Scholar
  70. Rushton, J. P., & Bogaert, A. F. (1987). Race differences in sexual behavior: Testing an evolutionary hypothesis. Journal of Research in Personality, 21(4), 529–551.Google Scholar
  71. Samakow, J. (2014). You are what you wear: The dangerous lessons kids learn from sexist t-shirts. The Huffington Post, December 4, 2014. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/12/03/dangerous-lessons-from-sexist-shirts_n_6102096.html.
  72. Samimian-Darash, L. (2013). Rebuilding the body through violence and control. Ethnography, 14(1), 46–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Schilt, K., & Westbrook, L. (2009). Doing gender, doing heteronormativity: ‘Gender normals’, transgender people, and the social maintenance of heterosexuality. Gender & Society, 23(4), 440–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Silva, J. M. (2008). A new generation of women? How female ROTC cadets negotiate the tension between masculine military culture and traditional femininity. Social Forces, 87(2), 937–960.Google Scholar
  75. Simula, B. (2013). Queer utopias in painful spaces: BDSM participants’ interrelational resistance to heteronormativity and gender regulation. In A. Jones (Ed.), A critical inquiry into queer utopias. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  76. Sorenson, S. (2011). Gender disparities in injury mortality: Consistent, persistent, and larger than you’d think. American Journal of Public Health 101(Supplement 1): S353-S358).Google Scholar
  77. Spencer, D. (2009). Habit(us), body techniques and body callusing: An ethnography of mixed martial arts. Body & Society, 15(4), 119–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Stone, A., & Shapiro, E. (2017). ‘You’re really just a gay man in a woman’s body!’ The possibilities and perils of queer sexuality. Men and Masculinities, 20(2), 254–272.Google Scholar
  79. Theberge, N. (1997). ‘It’s part of the game’: Physicality and the production of gender in women’s hockey. Gender & Society, 11(1), 69–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Trawalter, S., Hoffman, K., & Waytz, A. (2012). Racial bias in perceptions of others’ pain. PLoS ONE, 7(11), e48546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wacquant, L. (1998). The prizefighter’s three bodies. Ethnos, 63(3–4), 325–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Waskul, D., Vannini, P., & Wiesen, D. (2007). Women and their clitoris: Personal discovery, signification, and use. Symbolic Interaction, 30(2), 151–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. West, C., & Zimmerman, Don H. (1987). Doing gender. Gender & Society, 1(2), 125–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wilkerson, A. (2002). Disability, sex radicalism, and political agency. NWSA Journal, 14(3), 33–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Wittman, C. (1997 [1970]). A gay manifesto. In RN. Lancaster & M. di Leonardo (Eds.), The gender/sexuality reader: Culture, history, political economy. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  86. Wolf, N. (2002 [1991]). The beauty myth: How images of beauty are used against women. New York: Harper Perennial.Google Scholar
  87. Young, I. M. (1990). Throwing like a girl and other essays in feminist philosophy and social theory. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Wheaton CollegeNortonUSA

Personalised recommendations