Advertisement

Gender in Movements

  • Jo RegerEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research book series (HSSR)

Abstract

Heeding the call to integrate gender into the study of social movements and drawing on the work of gender and feminist scholars, I argue that there now exists a body of work that views social movements through the lens of intersectionality as well as recognizing gender as a multi-layered social structure and institution. Selecting representative work, I characterize gender in movements as occurring on three levels. The first level focuses on social processes such as gender socialization, interactions, leadership and engagement in activities. Second is the level of organization and community where gender operates in structures, frames, identities and strategies and tactics. Third is the cultural and societal level where gender can act to open up opportunities for activism or as a constraint through dynamics in the environment. I conclude with future directions for the study of gender in movements, including turning a scholarly gaze to dynamics of masculinity, gender neutrality and transgender in shaping movements, and the continued incorporation of intersectionality. In sum, the field of social movement studies is vibrant with gender research but still there is much to do.

Keywords

Process Organizations Environment Social movements 

References

  1. Acker, J. (1990). Hierarchies, jobs, bodies: A theory of gendered organizations. Gender & Society, 4(2), 139–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acker, J. (2006). Inequality regimes gender, class, and race in organizations. Gender & Society, 20(4), 441–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adams, J. (2002). Gender and social movement decline: Shantytown women and the prodemocracy movement in Pinochet’s Chile. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 31(3), 285–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barnett, B. M. N. (1993). Invisible black southern women leaders in the movement: The triple constraints of gender, race, and class. Gender & Society, 7, 162–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bell, S. E., & Braun, Y. A. (2010). Coal, identity, and the gendering of environmental justice activism in central Appalachia. Gender & Society, 24(6), 794–813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Black Lives Matter. No date. http://blacklivesmatter.com/. Accessed January 3, 2017.
  7. Chafetz, J. S., Dworkin, A. G., & Swanson, S. (1986). Female revolt: Women’s movements in world and historical perspective. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Allanheld.Google Scholar
  8. Collins, P. H. (1990). Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment. Boston: Unwin Hyman.Google Scholar
  9. Combahee River Collective, The Combahee River Collective statement. copyright © 1978 by Zillah Eisenstein. http://circuitous.org/scraps/combahee.html.
  10. Connell, R. (2012). Transsexual women and feminist thought: Toward new understanding and new politics. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 37(4), 857–881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Connell, R. W. (1987). Gender and power: Society, the person and sexual politics. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Costain, A. (1992). Inviting women’s rebellion: A political process interpretation of the women’s movement. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Crenshaw, K. (1991). Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. Stanford Law Review, 43(6), 1241–1299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. DuBois, E. C. (1978). Feminism and suffrage: The emergence of an independent women’s movement in America, 1848–1869. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Einwohner, R. (1999). Gender, class and social movement outcomes: Identity and effectiveness in two animal rights campaigns. Gender & Society, 13(1), 56–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Einwohner, R., Hollander, J. A., & Olson, T. (2000). Engendering social movements: Cultural images and movement dynamics. Gender & Society, 14(5), 679–699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Evans, S. (1979). Personal politics: The roots of women’s liberation in the civil rights movement and the new left. New York: Alfred Knopf.Google Scholar
  18. Ferree, M. M., & Martin, P. Y. (1995). Feminist organizations: Harvest of the new women’s movement. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Ferree, M. M., & Roth, S. (1998). Gender, class and the interaction between social movements: A strike of West Berlin day care workers. Gender & Society, 12, 626–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Freeman, J. (1975). The politics of women’s liberation: A case study of an emerging social movement and its relation to the policy process. New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  21. Friedan, B. (1963). The feminine mystique. New York: W.W. Norton & co.Google Scholar
  22. Gerson, J. M., & Peiss, K. (1985). Boundaries, negotiation, consciousness: Reconceptualizing gender relations. Social Problems, 32(4), 317–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hercus, C. (1999). Identity, emotion, and feminist collective action. Gender & Society, 13(1), 34–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hunt, S. A., Benford, R., & Snow, D. (1994). Identity fields: Framing processes and the social construction of movement identities. In E. Larana, H. Johnston, & J. R. Gusfield (Eds.), New social movements: From ideology to identity (pp. 185–208). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Hurwitz, H.M., & Taylor, V. (Forthcoming). Women occupying wall street: Gender conflict and feminist mobilization. In L. Banasak & H. J. McCammon (Eds.), 100 years of the nineteenth amendment: An appraisal of women’s political activism. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Irons, J. (1998). The shaping of activist recruitment and participation: A study of women in the Mississippi civil rights movement. Gender & Society, 12, 692–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kelly, M. (2014). Knitting as a feminist project? Women’s Studies International Forum, 44(May–June), 133–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kelly, M. (2015). Feminist identity, collective action, and individual resistance among contemporary U.S. feminists. Women’s Studies International Forum, 48(Jan–Feb), 81–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. King, D. K. (1988). Multiple jeopardy, multiple consciousness: The context of a black feminist ideology. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 14, 42–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kutz-Flamenbaum, R. (2007). Code pink, raging grannies, and the missile dick chicks: Feminist performance activism in the contemporary anti-war movement. NWSA Journal, 19(1, Spring), 89–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Laughlin, K., Gallagher, J., Cobble, D. S., Boris, E., Nadasen, P., Gilmore, S., & Zarnow, L. (2010). Is it time to jump ship? Historians rethink the waves metaphor. Feminist Formations, 22(1, Spring), 76–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lorber, J. (1994). Paradoxes of gender. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  33. McAdam, D. (1988). Freedom summer. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  34. McAdam, D. (1992). Gender as mediator of the activist experience: The case of freedom summer. American Journal of Sociology, 97(5), 1211–1240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. McCammon, H. J., Campbell, K., Granberg, E., & Mowrey, C. (2001). How movements win: Gendered opportunity structures and U.S. women’s suffrage movements, 1866 to 1919. American Sociological Review, 66, 49–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Meyer, D. S., & Whittier, N. (1994). Social movement spillover. Social Problems, 4(2), 277–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mueller, C. (1987). Collective consciousness, identity transformation, and the rise of women in public office in the United States. In M. Katzenstein & C. Mueller (Eds.), The women’s movements of the United States and Western Europe (pp. 89–108). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Naples, N. (1992). Activist mothering: Cross generational continuity in the community work of women from low-income neighborhoods. Gender & Society, 6, 441–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Naples, N. (1998a). Activist mothering, community work and the war on poverty. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  40. Naples, N. (1998b). Grassroots warriors: Activist mothering, community work and the war on poverty. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  41. Neuhouser, K. (1995). “Worse than men”: Gendered mobilization in an urban Brazilian squatter settlement, 1971–1991. Gender & Society, 9(1), 38–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pardo, M. S. (1998). Mexican American women activists: Identity and resistance in two Los Angeles communities. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Pelak, C., Taylor, V., & Whittier, N. (1999). Gender movements. In J. S. Chafetz (Ed.), Handbook of the sociology of gender (pp. 147–175). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.Google Scholar
  44. Pentney, B. A. (2008). Feminist activism and knitting: Are fibre arts a viable mode for feminist political action? Thirdspace: a journal of feminist theory & culture, 8(1, Summer), Online.Google Scholar
  45. Reger, J. (2001). Motherhood and the construction of feminist identities: Variations in women’s movement organizations. Sociological Inquiry, 71, 85–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Reger, J. (2012). Everywhere and nowhere: Contemporary feminism in the United States. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Risman, B. J. (2004). Gender as a social structure: Theory wrestling with activism. Gender & Society, 18(4), 429–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Robnett, B. (1997). How long? How long? African American women in the struggle for civil rights. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Roth, B. (2002). Separate roads to feminism: Black, Chicana and white feminist movements in America’s second wave. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Roth, S. (2008). Dealing with diversity: The coalition of labor union women. In J. Reger, D. J. Myers, & R. L. Einwohner (Eds.), Identity work in social movements (pp. 213–231). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  51. Rupp, L., & Taylor, V. (1987). Survival in the doldrums: The American women’s rights movement, 1945 to the 1960s. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Schulte, S. R. (2011). Surfing feminism’s online wave: The internet and the future of feminism. Feminist Studies, 37(3), 727–744.Google Scholar
  53. Snyder, R. C. (2008). What is third‐wave feminism? A new directions essay. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 34(1), 175–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Stacey, J., & Thorne, B. (1985). The missing feminist revolution in sociology. Social Problems, 32(4), 301–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Stall, S., & Stoecker, R. (1998). Community organizing or organizing community? Gender and the crafts of empowerment. Gender & Society, 12(6), 729–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Stein, A. (2010). The incredible shrinking lesbian world and other queer conundra. Sexualities, 13(1), 21–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Tarrow, S. (1989). Struggle, politics and reform: Collective action, social movements and cycles of protest. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Taylor, V. (1989). Sources of continuity in social movements: The women’s movement in abeyance. American Sociological Review, 54, 761–775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Taylor, V. (1996). Rock-a-by-Baby: Feminism, self-help, and postpartum depression. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  60. Taylor, V. (1999). Gender and social movements: Gender processes in women’s self-help movements. Gender & Society, 13(1), 8–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Taylor, V., & Whittier, N. (1992). Collective identity in social movement communities: Lesbian feminist mobilization. In A. D. Morris & C. M. C. Mueller (Eds.), Frontiers in social movement theory (pp. 104–129). New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  62. Taylor, V., & Whittier, N. (1998). Guest editors’ introduction: Special issue on gender and social movements: Part 1. Gender & Society, 12(6), 622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Thompson, B. (2002). Multiracial feminism: Recasting the chronology of second wave feminism. Feminist Studies, 28, 337–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Tilley, C. (1978). From mobilization to revolution. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  65. West, C., & Zimmerman, D. H. (1987). Doing gender. Gender & Society, 1(2), 125–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Whittier, N. (2007). Gender and social movements. In G. Ritzer (Ed.), The Blackwell encyclopedia of sociology (Vol. IV, pp. 1872–1875). Maiden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
  67. Whittier, N. (2012). The politics of coming out: Visibility and identity in activism against child sexual abuse. In G. Maney, R. Kutz-Flamenbaum, D. Rohlinger, J. Goodwin (Eds.), Strategies for social change (pp. 145–69). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Oakland UniversityRochesterUSA

Personalised recommendations