Advertisement

Gender and Emotion Management

  • Carissa FroyumEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research book series (HSSR)

Abstract

Arlie Hochschild’s work shifted sociological attention to how emotions are not just felt but managed. She argued we cultivate emotional experiences in ourselves and others, what she termed “emotion work,” in gendered and classed ways. Critical to emotion work are the “feeling rules” or the social scripts for what we should feel, how we should express our feelings, how much feeling to express, and for how long in a given social context. This chapter examines how we gender emotions through the socialization of gendered feeling rules and performing and policing gendered emotion work. It also examines the institutionalization of feeling rules and emotion work within families, schools, and workplaces. In each case, emotions are not just a byproduct and constituent of the gender social structure but also race, class, and sexuality. The chapter ends with a call for more research on the intersection of gendered emotions with disabilities and a thorough accounting of the role of the beneficiaries of emotion work in policing feeling rules.

References

  1. Anderson, E. (1999). Code of the streets: Decency, violence, and the moral life of the inner city. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  2. Andrew, Y. (2015). ‘I’m strong within myself’: Gender, class and emotional capital in childcare. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 36(5), 651–668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barber, K. (2016). “Men wanted”: Heterosexual aesthetic labor in the masculinization of the hair salon. Gender & Society, 30(4), 618–642.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243216637827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bettie, J. (2000). Women without class: Chicas, cholas, trash, and the presence/absence of class identity. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture & Society, 26(1), 1–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bianchi, S. M. (2011). Family change and time allocation in American families. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 638(1), 21–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Biblarz, T. J., & Stacey, J. (2010). How does the gender of parents matter? Journal of Marriage and Family, 72(1), 3–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blum, L. M. (2015). Raising generation Rx: Mothering kids with invisible disabilities in an age of inequality. New York City: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bolton, S. C. (2000). Emotion here, emotion there, emotional organisations everywhere. Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 11, 155–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boyle, K. M., & McKinzie, A. E. (2015). Resolving negative affect and restoring meaning: Responses to deflection produced by unwanted sexual experiences. Social Psychology Quarterly, 78(2), 151–172.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0190272514564073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown, L. M. (2005). In the bad or good of girlhood: Social class, schooling, and white femininities. In L. Weis & M. Fine (Eds.), Beyond silenced voices: Class, race, and gender in United States schools (pp. 147–162). Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  11. Carter, P. L. (2003). ‘Black’ cultural capital, status positioning, and schooling conflicts for low-income African American youth. Social Problems, 50(1), 136–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carter, P. L. (2005). “Black” cultural capital, status positioning, and schooling conflicts for low-income African American youth. Social Problems, 50(1), 136–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chaplin, T. M., Cole, P., & Zahn-Waxler, C. (2005). Parental socialization of emotion expression: Gender differences and relations to child adjustment. Emotion, 5(1), 80–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Collett, J. L., & Lizardo, O. (2010). Occupational status and the experience of anger. Social Forces, 88(5), 2079–2104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Collins, P. H. (2004). Black sexual politics: African Americans, gender, and the new racism. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cottingham, M. D. (2016). Theorizing emotional capital. Theory and Society, 45(5), 451–470.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11186-016-9278-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cottingham, M. D., Johnson, A. H., & Taylor, T. (2016). Heteronormative labour: Conflicting accountability structures among men in nursing. Gender, Work & Organization, 23(6), 535–550.  https://doi.org/10.1111/gwao.12140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cox, A. B. (2016). Correcting behaviors and policing emotions: How behavioral infractions become feeling-rule violations. Symbolic Interaction, 39(3), 484–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dance, L. J. (2002). Tough fronts: The impact of street culture on schooling. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  20. Denham, S. A., Bassett, H. H., & Wyatt, T. M. (2010). Gender differences in the socialization of preschoolers’ emotional competence. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2010(128), 29–49.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cd.267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dodson, L., & Zincavage, R. M. (2007). “It’s like a family” caring labor, exploitation, and race in nursing homes. Gender & Society, 21(6), 905–928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dow, D. M. (2016). The deadly challenges of raising African American boys: Navigating the controlling image of the “thug”. Gender & Society, 30(2), 161–188.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243216629928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dreby, J. (2006). Honor and virtue: Mexican parenting in the transnational context. Gender & Society, 20(1), 32–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dreby, J. (2012). The burden of deportation on children in Mexican immigrant families. Journal of Marriage and Family, 74(4), 829–845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dunn, J. L. (2014). What love has to do with it: The cultural construction of emotion and sorority women’s responses to forcible interaction*. Social Problems, 46(3), 440–459.  https://doi.org/10.2307/3097109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Erickson, K. (2004). To invest or detach? Coping strategies and workplace culture in service work. Symbolic Interaction, 27(4), 549–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Le Espiritu, Y. (2001). ‘We don’t sleep around like white girls do’: Family, culture, and gender in Filipina American lives. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture & Society, 26(2), 415–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fahs, B., & Swank, E. (2016). The other third shift? Women’s emotion work in their sexual relationships. Feminist Formations, 28(3), 46–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ferguson, A. A. (2000). Bad boys: Public schools in the making of black masculinity. Ann Arbor, Michigan: The University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Froyum, C. M. (2007). ‘At least i’m not gay’: Heterosexual identity making among poor black teens. Sexualities, 10(5), 603–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Froyum, C. M. (2010a). Making ‘good girls’: Sexual agency in the sexuality education of low-income black girls. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 12(1), 59–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Froyum, C. M. (2010b). The reproduction of inequalities through emotional capital: The case of socializing low-income black girls. Qualitative Sociology, 3(1), 37–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Froyum, C. M. (2013a). ‘For the betterment of kids who look like me’: Professional emotional labour as a racial project. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 36(6), 1070–1089.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2011.644309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Froyum, C. M. (2013b). Leaving the street alone: Contesting street manhood as a gender project. Journal of Gender Studies, 22(1), 38–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Garside, R. B., & Klimes-Dougan, B. (2002). Socialization of discrete negative emotions: Gender differences and links with psychological distress. Sex Roles, 47(3/4), 115–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. Garden City, AT: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  37. Goffman, E. (1961). Encounters: Two studies in the sociology of interaction. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Company Inc.Google Scholar
  38. Green, K. M., Ensminger, M. E., Robertson, J. A., & Juon, H.-S. (2006). Impact of adult sons’ incarceration on African American mothers’ psychological distress. Journal of Marriage and Family, 68(2), 430–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gruys, K. (2012). Does this make me look fat? Aesthetic labor and fat talk as emotional labor in a women’s plus-size clothing store. Social Problems, 59(4), 481–500.  https://doi.org/10.1525/sp.2012.59.4.481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Harlow, R. (2003). “ Race doesn’t matter, but …”: The effect of race on professors’ experiences and emotion management in the undergraduate college classroom. Social Psychology Quarterly, 348–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Harris, L. C. (2002). The emotional labour of barristers: An exploration of emotional labour by status professionals. Journal of Management Studies, 39(4), 553–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hays, S. (1998). The cultural contradictions of motherhood. Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Hill, S. A. (2005). Black intimacies: A gender perspective on families and relationships. Walnut Creek: AltaMira Press.Google Scholar
  44. Hoang, L. A., & Yeoh, B. S. A. (2012). Sustaining families across transnational spaces: Vietnamese migrant parents and their left-behind children. Asian Studies Review, 36(3), 307–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hochschild, A. R. (1979). Emotion work, feeling rules, and social structure. American Journal of Sociology, 551–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hochschild, A. R. (1983). The managed heart: Commercialization of human feeling. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  47. Hollander, J. A. (2013). I demand more of people: Accountability, interaction, and gender change. Gender & Society, 27(1), 5–29.Google Scholar
  48. Husso, M., & Hirvonen, H. (2012). Gendered agency and emotions in the field of care work. Gender, Work & Organization, 19(1), 29–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jackson, B. A, & Wingfield, A. H. (2013). Getting angry to get ahead: Black college men, emotional performance, and encouraging respectable masculinity. Symbolic Interaction.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Johnson, A. G. (1997). The gender knot: Unraveling our patriarchal legacy. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Kane, E. W. (2006). “No way my boys are going to be like that!”: Parents’ responses to children’s gender nonconformity. Gender & Society, 20(2), 149–176.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243205284276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kang, M. (2003). The managed hand: The commercialization of bodies and emotions in Korean immigrant-owned nail salons. Gender & Society, 17(5), 820–839.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kemper, T. D. (1978). A social interactional theory of emotion. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  54. Klimes-Dougan, B., Brand, A. E., Zahn-Waxler, C., Usher, B., Hastings, P. D., Kendziora, K., et al. (2007). Parental emotion socialization in adolescence: Differences in sex. Age and Problem Status. Social Development, 16(2), 326–342.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00387.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kolb, K. H. (2011). Sympathy work: Identity and emotion management among victim-advocates and counselors. Qualitative Sociology, 34(1), 101–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kosny, A., & MacEachen, E. (2010). Gendered, invisible work in non-profit social service organizations: Implications for worker health and safety. Gender, Work and Organization, 17(4), 359–380.Google Scholar
  57. Leidner, R. (1999). Emotional labor in service work. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 561, 81–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lewis, A. E. (2003). Race in the Schoolyard: Negotiating the color line in classrooms and communities. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Lewis, P. (2005). Suppression or expression: An exploration of emotion management in a special care baby unit. Work, Employment & Society, 19(3), 565–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lively, K. J. (2000). Reciprocal emotion management. Work and Occupations, 27(1), 32–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lively, K. J., Steelman, L. C., & Powell, Brian. (2010). Equity, emotion, and household division of labor. Social Psychology Quarterly, 73(4), 358–379.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0190272510389012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Luttrell, W. (2003). Pregnant bodies, fertile minds: Gender, race, and the schooling of pregnant teens. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  63. MacLeod, J. (1995). Ain’t no makin’ it. Boulder. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  64. Martin, S. E. (1999). Police force or police service? Gender and emotional labor. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 561(1), 111–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Matthews, C. R. (2016). The tyranny of the male preserve. Gender & Society, 30(2), 312–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. McCabe, J. (2009). Racial and gender microaggressions on a predominantly-white campus: Experiences of black, latina/o and white undergraduates. Race, Gender & Class, 133–151.Google Scholar
  67. McLaughlin, H., Uggen, C., & Blackstone, A. (2012). Sexual harassment, workplace authority, and the paradox of power. American Sociological Review, 77(4), 625–647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mears, A., & Finlay, W. (2005). Not just a paper doll: How models manage bodily capital and why they perform emotional labor. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 34(3), 317–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mehrotra, M., & Calasanti, T. M. (2010). The family as a site for gendered ethnic identity work among Asian Indian immigrants. Journal of Family Issues, 31(6), 778–807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Minnotte, K. L., Pedersen, D. E., Mannon, S. E., & Kiger, G. (2010). Tending to the emotions of children: Predicting parental performance of emotion work with children. Marriage & Family Review, 46(3), 224–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Minnotte, K. L., Stevens, D. P., Minnotte, M. C., & Kiger, G. (2007). Emotion-work performance among dual-earner couples: Testing four theoretical perspectives. Journal of Family Issues, 28(6), 773–793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Monaghan, L. (2002). Hard men, shop boys and others: Embodying competence in a masculinised occupation. Sociological Review, 50(3), 334–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Morris, E. W. (2005a). “Tuck in that shirt!” Race, class, gender, and discipline in an urban school. sociological perspectives, 48(1), 25–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Morris, E. W. (2005b). “Tuck in that shirt!” Race, class, gender, and discipline in an urban school. Sociological Perspectives, 48(1), 25–48.  https://doi.org/10.1525/sop.2005.48.1.25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Morris, E. W. (2007). ‘Ladies’ or ‘loudies’? Perceptions and experiences of black girls in classrooms. Youth & Society, 38(4), 490–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Nelson, J. A., Leerkes, E. M., O’Brien, M., Calkins, S. D., & Marcovitch, S. (2012). African American and European American mothers’ beliefs about negative emotions and emotion socialization practices. Parenting, 12(1), 22–41.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15295192.2012.638871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Pascoe, C. J. (2011). Dude, you’re a fag: Masculinity and sexuality in high school, with a new preface. Univ of California Press.Google Scholar
  78. Penner, A. M., & Saperstein, A. (2013). Engendering racial perceptions: An intersectional analysis of how social status shapes race. Gender & Society, 27(3), 319–344.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243213480262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Persson, A. (2012). An unintended side effect of pepper spray: Gender trouble and “repair work” in an armed forces unit. Men and Masculinities, 15(2), 132–151.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1097184x11429596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pfeffer, C. A. (2010). “Women’s work”? Women partners of transgender men doing housework and emotion work. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72(1), 165–183.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2009.00690.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pierce, J. L. (1995). Gender trials: Emotional lives in contemporary law firms. Berkeley, CA: University of Berkeley Press.Google Scholar
  82. Ragins, B. R., & Winkel, D. E. (2011). Gender, emotion and power in work relationships. Human Resource Management Review, 21(4), 377–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Reay, D. (2004). Gendering bourdieu’s concept of capitals? Emotional capital, women and social class. In Feminism after Bourdieu (pp. 57–74). Oxford: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ridgeway, C. L., & Kricheli-Katz, T. (2013). Intersecting cultural beliefs in social relations: Gender, race, and class binds and freedoms. Gender & Society, 27(3), 294–318.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243213479445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ridgeway, C. L., Stets, J. E., & Turner, J. H. (2006). Expectation states theory and emotion. In Handbook of the sociology of emotions (pp. 347–367). Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research: Springer US.Google Scholar
  86. Rogers, K. B., Schröder, T., & Scholl, W. (2013). The affective structure of stereotype content: Behavior and emotion in intergroup context. Social Psychology Quarterly, 76(2), 125–150.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0190272513480191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Romero, M. (2002). Maid in the U.S.A. New York: Routledge (Second Aufl).Google Scholar
  88. Root, A. K., & Rubin, K. H. (2010). Gender and parents’ reactions to children’s emotion during the preschool years. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2010(128), 51–64.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cd.268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ryan, L. (2008). Navigating the emotional terrain of families “here” and “there”: Women, migration and the management of emotions. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 29(3), 299–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sattel, J. W. (1976). The inexpressive male: Tragedy or sexual politics? Social Problems, 23(4), 469–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Schwab, J. R., Addis, M. E., Reigeluth, C. S., & Berger, J. L. (2016). Silence and (in)visibility in men’s accounts of coping with stressful life events. Gender & Society, 30(2), 289–311.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243215602923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Schwalbe, M. (2014). Manhood acts: Gender and the practices of domination. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.Google Scholar
  93. Schwalbe, M. (2015). Manhood acts: Gender and the practices of domination. Routledge.Google Scholar
  94. Simon, R. W., & Lively, K. (2010). Sex, anger and depression. Social Forces, 88(4), 1543–1568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Simon, R. W., & Nath, L. E. (2004). Gender and emotion in the united states: Do men and women differ in self-reports of feelings and expressive behavior? 1. American Journal of Sociology, 109(5), 1137–1176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sloan, M. M. (2004). The effects of occupational characteristics on the experience and expression of anger in the workplace. Work and Occupations, 31(1), 38–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Smith, A. T. (2008). Passion work: The joint production of emotional labor in professional wrestling. Social Psychology Quarterly, 71(2), 157–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Stacey, C. L., & Ayers, L. L. (2012). Caught between love and money: The experiences of paid family caregivers. Qualitative Sociology, 35(1), 47–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Suizzo, M.-A., Robinson, C., & Pahlke, E. (2008). African American Mothers’ socialization beliefs and goals with young children: Themes of history, education, and collective independence. Journal of Family Issues, 29(3), 287–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Talbot, K., & Quayle, M. (2010). The perils of being a nice guy: Contextual variation in five young women’s constructions of acceptable hegemonic and alternative masculinities. Men and Masculinities.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Tolman, D. L. (1996). Adolescent girls’ sexuality: Debunking the myth of the urban girl. In B. J. R Leadbeater & N. Way (Eds.), Urban girls: Resisting stereotypes, creating identities (pp. 255–271). New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  102. Tufail, Z., & Polletta, F. (2015). The gendering of emotional flexibility why angry women are both admired and devalued in debt settlement firms. Gender & Society: 0891243215569050.Google Scholar
  103. Tyson, K. (2003). Notes from the back of the room: Problems and paradoxes in the schooling of young black students. Sociology of Education, 76(4), 326–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Vaccaro, C. A., Schrock, D. P., & McCabe, J. M. (2011). Managing emotional manhood: Fighting and fostering fear in mixed martial arts. Social Psychology Quarterly, 74(4), 414–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Vasquez, J. M. (2015). Disciplined preferences: Explaining the (re) production of latino endogamy. Social Problems, 62(3), 455–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wenger, L. M. (2013). Moving through Illness with strong backs and soft fronts: A substantive theory of men’s help-seeking during cancer. Men and Masculinities, 16(5), 517–539.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1097184x13501177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wharton, A. S. (1999). The psychosocial consequences of emotional labor. The annals of the american academy of political and social science, 561(1), 158–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Wharton, A. S., & Erickson, R. J. (1995). The consequences of caring: Exploring the links between women’s job and family emotion work. Sociological Quarterly, 36, 273–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Wildeman, C., Schnittker, J., & Turney, K. (2012). Despair by association? The mental health of mothers with children by recently incarcerated fathers. American Sociological Review, 77(2), 216–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Wilkins, A. (2012). “Not out to start a revolution” race, gender, and emotional restraint among black university men. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 41(1), 34–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Williams, C. (2003). Sky service: The demands of emotional labour in the airline industry. Gender, Work and Organization, 10(5), 513–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wingfield, A. H. (2010). Are some emotions marked ‘whites only’? Racialized feeling rules in professional workplaces. Social Problems, 57(2), 251–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wolkomir, M., & Powers, J. (2007). Helping women and protecting the self: The challenge of emotional labor in an abortion clinic. Qualitative Sociology, 30, 153–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Northern IowaIowaUSA

Personalised recommendations