Advertisement

Racializing Gendered Interactions

  • Koji ChavezEmail author
  • Adia Harvey Wingfield
Chapter
Part of the Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research book series (HSSR)

Abstract

At this point, extensive research and data document the myriad ways that gender shapes social interactions. Yet while sociologists have devoted a great deal of attention to understanding how gender informs interactions, most of this work has yet to incorporate an intersectional approach that examines how these interactions are racialized in ways that produce specific outcomes. In this entry, we briefly review the literature that highlights the multiple ways social interactions are gendered. We then consider different approaches that seek to racialize these interactions, and end our paper with discussion of areas for future research.

Keywords

Intersectionality Race and gender Stereotypes Social interaction 

References

  1. Almquist, E. M. (1975). Untangling the effects of race and sex: The disadvantaged status of black women. Social Science Quarterly, 56(1), 129–142.Google Scholar
  2. Babbitt, L. G. (2013). An intersectional approach to black/white interracial interactions: The roles of gender and sexual orientation. Sex Roles, 68, 791–802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beal, F. M. (1970). Double jeopardy: To be black and female. In T. Cade (Ed.), The black woman: An anthology (pp. 90–100). New York: Signet.Google Scholar
  4. Bell, E. L. J. E., & Nkomo, S. M. (2001). Our separate ways: Black and white women and the struggle for professional identity. Boston: Harvard Business School Press Books.Google Scholar
  5. Berdahl, J. L., & Moore, C. (2006). Workplace harassment: Double jeopardy for minority women. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(2), 426–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berger, J., Cohen, B. P., & Zelditch, M. (1972). Status characteristics and social interaction. American Sociological Review, 37(3), 241–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Biernat, M., & Sesko, A. K. (2013). Evaluating the contributions of members of mixed-sex work teams: Race and gender matter. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49(3), 471–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bodenhausen, G. V. (2010). Diversity in the person, diversity in the group: Challenges of identity complexity for social perception and social interaction. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 1–16.Google Scholar
  9. Chan, J. W. (2000). Bruce Lee’s fictional model of masculinity. Men and Masculinities, 2(4), 371–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chao, M. M. (2013). Essentializing race: Its implications on racial categorization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104(4), 619–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen, A. S. (1999). Lives at the Center of the periphery, lives at the periphery of the center: Chinese American Masculinities and Bargaining with Hegemony. Gender and Society, 33(5), 584–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Choo, H. Y., & Ferree, M. M. (2010). Practicing intersectionality in sociological research: A critical analysis of inclusions, interactions, and institutions in the study of inequalities. Sociological Theory, 28(2), 129–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Connell, R. W. (1987). Gender & power. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Connell, R. W. (2005). Masculinities (2nd ed.). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  15. Connell, R. W., & Messerschmidt, J. W. (2005). Hegemonic masculinity: Rethinking the concept. Gender & Society, 19(6), 829–859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Correll, S. J., & Ridgeway, C. L. (2003). Expectation states theory. In J. Delamater (Ed.), Handbook of social psychology (pp. 29–51). New York: Kluwer Academic Press.Google Scholar
  17. Davis, K. (2008). Intersectionality as buzzword. Feminist Theory, 9(1), 67–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dugger, K. (1988). Social location and gender-role attitudes: A comparison of black and white women. Gender and Society, 2(4), 425–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Eagly, A. H., & Karau, S. J. (2002). Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders. Psychological Review, 109(3), 573–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Eagly, A. H., & Wood, W. (2012). Social role theory. In P. A. M. Van Lange, A. W. Kruglanksi, and E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of theories in social psychology (pp. 458–76). London: Sage Publications Ltd.Google Scholar
  21. Feliciano, C., Robnett, B., & Komaie, G. (2009). Gendered racial exclusion among white internet daters. Social Science Research, 38(1), 39–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fiske, S. T., Neuberg, S. L., Beattie, A. E., & Milberg, S. J. (1987). Category-based and attribute-based reactions to others: Some informational conditions of stereotyping and lndividuating processes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 23, 399–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Foschi, M. (2000). Double standards for competence theory and research. Annual Review of Sociology, 26, 21–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Galinsky, A. D., Hall, E. V., & Cuddy, A. J. C. (2013). Gendered races: Implications for interracial marriage, leadership selection, and athletic participation. Psychological Science, 24(4), 498–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ghavami, N., & Peplau, L. A. (2012). An intersectional analysis of gender and ethnic stereotypes: Testing three hypotheses. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 37(1), 113–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Goff, P. A., Steele, C. M., & Davies, P. G. (2008a). The space between us: Stereotype threat and distance in interracial contexts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94(1), 91–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Goff, P. A., Thomas, M. A., & Jackson, M. C. (2008b). ‘Ain’t I a Woman?’: Towards an intersectional approach to person perception and group-based harms. Sex Roles, 59, 392–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hall, E. V. (2012). Optimal Masculinity: Feminine races or genders attenuate sanctions for domineering behavior. In Academy of Management Proceedings.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hall, E. V., Galinsky, A. D., & Phillips, K. W. (2015). Gender profiling: A gendered race perspective on person—Position fit. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 41(6), 853–868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hall, E. V., & Livingston, R. W. (2012). The hubris penalty: Biased responses to ‘Celebration’ displays of black football players. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(4), 899–904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Harkness, S. K. (2016). Discrimination in lending markets: Status and the intersections of gender and race. Social Psychology Quarterly, 79(1), 81–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hull, G. T., Scott, P. B., & Smith, B. (Eds.). (1982). All the women are white, all the blacks are men, but some of us are brave. New York: Feminist Press.Google Scholar
  33. Ito, T. A., & Urland, G. R. (2003). Race and gender on the brain: Electrocortical measures of attention to the race and gender of multiply categorizable individuals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(4), 616–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Johnson, K. L., Freeman, J. B., & Pauker, K. (2012). Race is gendered: How covarying phenotypes and stereotypes bias sex categorization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102(1), 116–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Johnson, K. L., & Ghavami, N. (2011). At the crossroads of conspicuous and concealable: What race categories communicate about sexual orientation. PLoS One, 6(3), 1–8.Google Scholar
  36. Koenig, A. M., & Eagly, A. H. (2014). Evidence for the social role theory of stereotype content: Observations of groups’ roles shape stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107(3), 371–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kunda, Z., & Spencer, S. J. (2003). When do stereotypes come to mind and when do they color judgment? A goal-based theoretical framework for stereotype activation and application. Psychological Bulletin, 129(4), 522–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lewis, K. (2013). The limits of racial prejudice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(47), 18814–18819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lin, K. H., & Lundquist, J. (2013). Mate selection in cyberspace: The intersection of race, gender, and education. American Journal of Sociology, 119(1), 183–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Littleford, L. N., Wright, M. O. D., & Sayoc-Parial, M. (2005). White students’ intergroup anxiety during same-race and interracial interactions: A multimethod approach. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 27(1), 85–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Livingston, R. W., & Pearce, N. A. (2009). The teddy-bear effect: Does having a baby face benefit black chief executive officers? Psychological Science, 20(10), 1229–1236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Livingston, R. W., Rosette, A. S., & Washington, E. F. (2012). Can an agentic black woman get ahead? The impact of race and interpersonal dominance on perceptions of female leaders. Psychological Science, 23(4), 354–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Macrae, C. N., & Quadflieg, S. (2010). Perceiving people. In S. T. Fiske and D. T. Gilbert (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (pp. 428–463). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  44. Messner, M. A. (2000). Barbie girls versus sea monsters: Children constructing gender. Gender and Society, 14(6), 765–784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Moss-Racusin, C. A. (2014). Male backlash: Penalties for men who violate gender stereotypes. In D. A. Major and R. J. Burke (Eds.), Gender in organizations: Are men allies or adversaries to women’s career advancement? (pp. 247–69). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  46. Moss-Racusin, C. A., & Rudman, L. A. (2010). Disruptions in women’s self-promotion: The backlash avoidance model. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 34, 186–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ong, M. (2005). Body projects of young women of color in physics: Intersections of gender, race, and science. Social Problems, 52(4), 593–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pager, D. (2007). Marked: Race, crime, and finding work in an era of mass incarceration. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Pedulla, D. S. (2014). The positive consequences of negative stereotypes: Race, sexual orientation, and the job application process. Social Psychology Quarterly, 77(1), 75–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Penner, A. M., & Saperstein, A. (2013). Engendering racial perceptions: An intersectional analysis of how social status shapes race. Gender and Society, 27(3), 319–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pittinsky, T. L., Shih, M. J., & Trahan, A. (2006). Identity cues: Evidence from and for intra-individual perspectives on positive and negative stereotyping. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36(9), 2215–2239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Plaks, J. E., Malahy, L. W., Sedlins, M., & Shoda, Y. (2012). Folk beliefs about human genetic variation predict discrete versus continuous racial categorization and evaluative bias. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3(1), 31–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Plant, E. A., Devine, P. G., & Peruche, M. B. (2010). Routes to positive interracial interactions: Approaching egalitarianism or avoiding prejudice. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36(9), 1135–1147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Purdie-Vaughns, V., & Eibach, R. P. (2008). Intersectional invisibility: The distinctive advantages and disadvantages of multiple subordinate-group identities. Sex Roles, 59(5–6), 377–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Raver, J. L., & Nishii, L. H. (2010). Once, twice, or three times as harmful? Ethnic harassment, gender harassment, and generalized workplace harassment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(2), 236–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Remedios, J. D., & Snyder, S. H. (2015). How women of color detect and respond to multiple forms of prejudice. Sex Roles, 73, 371–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ridgeway, C. L. (2001). Gender, status, and leadership. Journal of Social Issues, 57(4), 637–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ridgeway, C. L. (2009). Framed before we know it. Gender and Society, 23(2), 145–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ridgeway, C. L. (2011). Framed by gender. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ridgeway, C. L., & Correll, S. J. (2004). Unpacking the gender system: A theoretical perspective on gender beliefs and social relations. Gender and Society, 18(4), 510–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ridgeway, C. L., & Kricheli-Katz, T. (2013). Intersecting cultural beliefs in social relations: Gender, race, and class binds and freedoms. Gender and Society, 27(3), 294–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ridgeway, C. L., & Smith-Lovin, L. (2006). Gender and interaction. In J. S. Chafetz (Ed.), Handbook of sociology of gender (pp. 247–74). New York: Springer Sciences + Business Media.Google Scholar
  63. Risman, B. J. (1998). Gender vertigo: American families in transition. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Risman, B. J. (2004). Gender as a social structure: Theory wrestling with activism. Gender & Society, 18(4), 429–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rosette, A. S., & Livingston, R. W. (2012). Failure is not an option for black women: Effects of organizational performance on leaders with single versus dual-subordinate identities. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(5), 1162–1167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rudman, L. A., Moss-Racusin, C. A., Glick, P., & Phelan, J. E. (2012). Reactions to vanguards: Advances in backlash theory. In P. Devine & A. Plant (Eds.), Advances in experimental sociology (pp. 167–227). Burlington: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  67. Schippers, M. (2007). Recovering the feminine other: Masculinity, femininity, and gender hegemony. Theory and Society, 36(1), 85–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Schug, J., Alt, N. P., & Klauer, K. C. (2015). Gendered race prototypes: Evidence for the non-prototypicality of Asian men and black women. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 56, 121–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sesko, A. K., & Biernat, M. (2010). Prototypes of race and gender: The invisibility of black women. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46(2), 356–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Shields, S. A. (2008). Gender: An intersectionality perspective. Sex Roles, 59(5–6), 301–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Shih, M., Pittinsky, T. L., & Ambady, N. (1999). Stereotype susceptibility: Identity salience and shifts in quantitative performance. Psychological Science, 10(1), 80–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Shih, M., Sanchez, D. R., & Ho, G. C. (2010). Costs and benefits of switching among multiple social identities. In R. J. C. Chichester (Eds.), The psychology of social and cultural diversity (pp. 62–83). UK: Wiley-Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sidanius, J., & Veniegas, R. C. (2000). Gender and race discrimination: The interactive nature of disadvantage. In S. Oskamp (Ed.), Reducing prejudice and discrimination (pp. 47–69). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  74. Silvera, D. H., Krull, D. S., & Sassler, M. A. (2002). Typhoid pollyanna: The effect of category valence on retrieval order of positive and negative category members. European Journal of Social Psychology, 12(2), 227–236.Google Scholar
  75. Skrentny, J. D. (2014). After civil rights: Racial realism in the new American workplace. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Swim, J. K., Hyers, L. L., Cohen, L. L., Fitzgerald, D. C., & Bylsma, W. H. (2003). African American college students’ experiences with everyday racism: Characteristics of and responses to these incidents. Journal of Black Psychology, 29(1), 38–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Thatcher, S. M. B., & Patel, P. C. (2011). Demographic faultlines: A meta-analysis of the literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(6), 1119–1139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Thomas, E. L., Dovidio, J. F., & West, T. V. (2014). Lost in the categorical shuffle: Evidence for the social non-prototypicality of black women. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 20(3), 370–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Todd, A. R., & Simpson, A. J. (2016). Perspective taking and member-to-group generalization of implicit racial attitudes: The role of target prototypicality. European Journal of Social Psychology, 47, 105–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Toosi, N. R., Sommers, S. R., & Ambady, N. (2012). Getting a word in group-wise: Effects of racial diversity on gender dynamics. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(5), 1150–1155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Trawalter, S., Richeson, J. A., & Nicole Shelton, J. (2009). Predicting behavior during interracial interactions: A stress and coping approach. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 13(4), 243–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Turco, C. J. (2010). Cultural foundations of tokenism: Evidence from the leveraged buyout industry. American Sociological Review, 76(6), 894–913.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Veenstra, G. (2013). The gendered nature of discriminatory experiences by race, class, and sexuality: A comparison of intersectionality theory and the subordinate male target hypothesis. Sex Roles, 68(11–12), 646–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wagner, D. G., & Berger, J. (1997). Gender and interpersonal task behavior: Status expectations accounts. Social Perspectives, 40(1), 1–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. West, C. M. (1995). Mammy, sapphire, and jezebel: Historical images of black women and their implications for psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, 32(3), 458–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. West, C., & Zimmerman, D. H. (1987). Doing gender. Gender and Society, 1(2), 125–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wilkins, C. L., Chan, J. F., & Kaiser, C. R. (2011). Racial stereotypes and interracial attraction: Phenotypic prototypicality and perceived attractiveness of Asians. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 17(4), 427–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Williams, C. L. (1992). The glass escalator: Hidden advantages for men in the ‘female’ professions. Social Problems, 39(3), 253–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wingfield, A. H. (2009). Racializing the glass escalator: Reconsidering men’s experiences with women’s work. Gender and Society, 23(1), 5–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wingfield, A. H. (2010). Are some emotions marked ‘whites only’? Racialized feeling rules in professional workplaces. Social Problems, 57(2), 251–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wingfield, A. H., & Wingfield, J. H. (2014). When visibility hurts and helps: How intersections of race and gender shape black professional men’s experiences with tokenization. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 20(4), 483–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Washington University in St. LouisSt. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations