Tariffs, Quotas and the Ideal of Pan-European Harmonisation from 1996 to 2001

  • Béatrice Cointe
  • Alain Nadaï
Part of the Progressive Energy Policy book series (PEP)


This chapter is interested in the period corresponding to the elaboration of the Directive on the promotion of renewable electricity, from 1996 to 2001. It looks at debates about renewable electricity policy at the European Union level as they became more specific: as national renewable electricity policies developed and diversified, attention started to focus on instrument choice. Having described the range of instruments in use, Cointe and Nadaï take the opposition between FITs and TGCs as a vantage point to analyse the Commission’s vision and its discrepancies with national policies. They show how the Commission was guided by an ideal of harmonisation via the market that was not the priority in all Member States. They trace the emergence of similar debates in academic circles.


Feed-in tariffs European Union Tradable Green Certificates Harmonisation 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Béatrice Cointe
    • 1
  • Alain Nadaï
    • 2
  1. 1.TIK Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of OsloOsloNorway
  2. 2.CIRED-CNRS (Centre International de Recherche sur l’Environnement et le Développement)Nogent-sur-MarneFrance

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