FITs and European Renewable Energy Policy Before 1996: A Tale of Two Beginnings

  • Béatrice Cointe
  • Alain Nadaï
Part of the Progressive Energy Policy book series (PEP)


This chapter focuses on the period between the late 1970s and the adoption of the Directive on the internal electricity market in 1996. This period saw the appearance of feed-in tariffs as well as the emergence of a European Union approach to renewable energy policy, though without direct connections between the two. Cointe and Nadaï retrace the origins of FITs, starting from their introduction in Germany and Denmark as a tool to integrate wind power into existing electricity systems and showing how they turned into renewable energy support instruments. They then analyse early European renewable energy policy, stressing that it was guided by the ideal of a liberalised market as a device for economic and social optimisation.


Feed-in tariffs European Union Renewable energy policy Internal electricity market External costs 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Béatrice Cointe
    • 1
  • Alain Nadaï
    • 2
  1. 1.TIK Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of OsloOsloNorway
  2. 2.CIRED-CNRS (Centre International de Recherche sur l’Environnement et le Développement)Nogent-sur-MarneFrance

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