• Riccardo Armillei
Part of the Mapping Global Racisms book series (MGR)


In the Conclusions, I emphasise the book’s central contribution and outline the implications of my research for policy-makers. The present conditions of the Romanies in Italy and their liminal status put them at the nexus of differing theoretical interpretations. To arrive at an adequate appreciation of this nexus, the three components of what I term the ‘camps system’ have been analysed separately. This approach helped to pinpoint how they have combined to produce a hegemonic perspective on Romani issues, which yields a simplistic binary interpretation of a complex and dynamic phenomenon: Romanies are generally viewed as either victims or threats, narrowing the range of responses to charity or hostility. Only in recent years has a growing awareness regarding the agency of the camps’ inhabitants re-emerged. This was after a period in which the encamped life of these individuals was at times associated with Agamben’s (Homo Sacer: sovereign power and bare life (trans: Heller-Roazen D). Stanford University Press, Stanford. (Original work published 1995), 1998) notion of ‘bare life’ and Foucault’s (1976) concept of ‘biopolitics’. Nevertheless, scholars have not yet analysed the camps as ‘resistance sites’ and ‘all-inclusive systems’ where interacting and interdependent agents form an integrated whole. The major contribution this research will make is thus to provide a clearer picture of the complex system (made up of the public sector, CSOs and Romani people) that surrounds Romani-related issues in Italy, highlighting the main causes of the minority’s social exclusion and marginalisation. The analysis will deliver a new theory about the predicament of Romanies living in Italy, while suggesting possible courses of interventions that could make existing policy initiatives more effective.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Riccardo Armillei
    • 1
  1. 1.Alfred Deakin Institute for Citizenship and Globalisation (ADI)Deakin UniversityBurwoodAustralia

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