Assessment of the Sustainability of Water Resources in the Litani River Basin

  • Nadim Farajalla
  • Yasmina El Amine
  • Amin Shaban
Part of the Water Science and Technology Library book series (WSTL, volume 85)


Litani River has become the most significant geo-environmental issue in Lebanon. It occupies concerns at different levels including those of inhabitant decision makers. Yet, the problem is worsening, and many challenges hinder progress in conserving the river water as well as human health. It is an alarming situation and time to take the most appropriate and efficient actions to attain the sustainability of the water resources in the river, which include water quantity and quality. Four salient conditions describe the major challenges in the Litani River Basin (LRB): water scarcity, population growth (natural and refugee influx), rapid urban sprawl, and poor water governance. In this study, an empirical analysis has been elaborated comparing the existing challenges with the requirements for water sustainability. It implies and indicates water availability, environment, and water governance. The calculated Water-Resources Sustainability Index shows poor sustainability of water resources in the LRB, thus indicating an urgent need to embark on a series of actions to ameliorate this poor status.


Quality deterioration Stream flow Water stress Governance 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nadim Farajalla
    • 1
  • Yasmina El Amine
    • 1
  • Amin Shaban
    • 2
  1. 1.Isam Fares InstituteAmerican University of BeirutBeirutLebanon
  2. 2.National Council for Scientific ResearchBeirutLebanon

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