The Physical, and Chemical and Microbial Characteristics of Litani River Water

Chapter
Part of the Water Science and Technology Library book series (WSTL, volume 85)

Abstract

The major physiochemical and microbiological properties of water were analyzed from 13 representative sites along the Litani River tributaries. The results indicated significant levels of pollution in many of the investigated sites. This has been observed in the upper and lower basins of the Litani River. Although some physiochemical variables were within the WHO and Libnor norms, there still remains severe contamination in the river water. Coliform and all genres of bacteria are highly and positively present in the investigated sites indicating unacceptable pollution input from untreated sewage outfall directly into the river. In addition, there is a high nitrite ratio beyond the permitted global range. Increased cadmium and iron contents were found, which also revealed a risky aspect of contamination. Physical variables also showed metal particles in the river water, and microbial and chemical contamination was visible in all sites. It can be concluded that the measured variables are indicative for water-quality assessment. The urgent mitigation of wastewater dumping into the river is highly recommended.

Keywords

Contamination Sewage water Microbiological analysis International norm Stream flow 

References

  1. APHA American public health association “APHA” (1995) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, Washington, D.C., USA, 19th edn, 698ppGoogle Scholar
  2. Elewa AA, Goher MEM (1999) Environmental factors affecting the precipitation and dissolution of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd in River Nile at Damietta branch. Bull Fac Sci Zagazig Univ 21(2):114–136Google Scholar
  3. Fawaz M (1992) Water resources in Lebanon. In: Proceedings of the national workshop of the status of water in Lebanon, Beirut, Lebanon, pp 17–29Google Scholar
  4. Haidar CM (2014) Evaluation de la qualite de l’eau du bassin superieur de la riviere du litani, liban: approche hydrogeochimique. Ph.D. thesis, Université de Lorraine, 272pp. http://docnum.univlorraine.fr/public/DDOC_T_2014_0295_MOUSSA_HAIDAR.pdf
  5. Haidar C, Nehme N, Awad S, Koubayssi B, Fakih M, Yaacoub A, Toufaily J, Villieras F, Hamieh T (2014) Physiochemical and microbial assessment of water quality in the Upper Litani River Basin, Lebanon. J Environ Earth Sci 4(9), ISSN 2224-3216Google Scholar
  6. Hajjar Z (1993) Water needs in Lebanon: potable, agricultural and industrial. In: Proceedings of the workshop on water affairs in Lebanon and Peace-Process in Project Series of Lebanon Life Studies-5, Beirut, Lebanon, pp 67–80Google Scholar
  7. Hajjar ZK (1997) Lebanese water and peace in the Middle East. Dar el ilm lilmalayin, Beirut, LebanonGoogle Scholar
  8. Jaber B (1993) Water availability in Lebanon. In: Proceedings of the workshop on water affairs in Lebanon and Peace-Process on Project Series of Lebanon Life Studies-5, Beirut, Lebanon, pp 53–66Google Scholar
  9. Khoury R, Doummar J, Khawlie M, Doumit A, Chaaban A, Abdalah C (2006) Using the Water Resources Model (WRM) for optimization: the Lebanon Lower Litani River case study, WatMed3, Tripoli, Liban, NovemberGoogle Scholar
  10. Lebanese Norm for Drinking Water (1999) n ̊ 161, ICS 13.060.20Google Scholar
  11. LRA (1999) Technical Report. Litani River AuthorityGoogle Scholar
  12. Mansour H (1994) Field report on the pollution of Al-Litani Waters’, Al-Litani National Water AuthorityGoogle Scholar
  13. Nehme N, Haidar C, Koubaissy B, Fakih M, Awad S, Toufaily J, Villieras F, Hamieh T (2013) Evaluation of the physicochemical characteristics of water in the Lower Litani Basin, Lebanon. Elixir Aquaculture 62:17478–17484Google Scholar
  14. Sawyer CN, McCarty PL, Parkin GF (2003) Chemistry for environmental engineering and science, 5th edn. McGraw-Hill, New York. ISBN 0-07-248066-Google Scholar
  15. Shaban A (2011) Analyzing climatic and hydrologic trends in Lebanon. J Environ Sci Eng 5(3)Google Scholar
  16. Shaban A, Nassif N (2007) Pollution in Qaraaoun Lake, Centre Lebanon. J Environ Hydrology 15(11):1–14Google Scholar
  17. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (2003) Consensus based sediment quality guidelines. Recommendations for use and application. Department of interior, Washington D.C., 20240 pp 17Google Scholar
  18. World Health Organization (WHO) (2006) A Proposal for Updating Lebanese norm of Drinking Water (1999) based on WHO GuidelinesGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary SciencesLebanese UniversityBeirutLebanon

Personalised recommendations