The Physical, and Chemical and Microbial Characteristics of Litani River Water

  • Nada Nehme
  • Chaden Haidar
Part of the Water Science and Technology Library book series (WSTL, volume 85)


The major physiochemical and microbiological properties of water were analyzed from 13 representative sites along the Litani River tributaries. The results indicated significant levels of pollution in many of the investigated sites. This has been observed in the upper and lower basins of the Litani River. Although some physiochemical variables were within the WHO and Libnor norms, there still remains severe contamination in the river water. Coliform and all genres of bacteria are highly and positively present in the investigated sites indicating unacceptable pollution input from untreated sewage outfall directly into the river. In addition, there is a high nitrite ratio beyond the permitted global range. Increased cadmium and iron contents were found, which also revealed a risky aspect of contamination. Physical variables also showed metal particles in the river water, and microbial and chemical contamination was visible in all sites. It can be concluded that the measured variables are indicative for water-quality assessment. The urgent mitigation of wastewater dumping into the river is highly recommended.


Contamination Sewage water Microbiological analysis International norm Stream flow 


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary SciencesLebanese UniversityBeirutLebanon

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