Advertisement

Introduction

  • Falah AlobaidEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Springer Tracts in Mechanical Engineering book series (STME)

Abstract

The increased expansion of intermittent electricity generation in the energy grid, notable wind power and photovoltaics can lead to a seemingly paradox situation of negative electricity prices at times of low demand and/or high renewable electricity output. The main reason here is the inflexibility of dispatchable electricity generations, e.g. coal and nuclear power that continue generating power despite the negative price signal from the electricity market in order to avoid a cost-intensive unit shutdown.

References

  1. Adams J, O’Malley M, Hanson K (2010) Flexibility requirements and potential metrics for variable generation: implications for system planning studies. NERC, Princeton, NJGoogle Scholar
  2. Alobaid F (2013) 3D modelling and simulation of reactive fluidized beds for conversion of biomass with discrete element method. tuprints, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  3. Alobaid F, Mertens N, Starkloff R, Lanz T, Heinze C, Epple B (2017) Progress in dynamic simulation of thermal power plants. Prog Energy Combust Sci 59:79–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Altantzis C, Bates R, Ghoniem A (2015) 3D Eulerian modeling of thin rectangular gas–solid fluidized beds: estimation of the specularity coefficient and its effects on bubbling dynamics and circulation times. Powder Technol 270:256–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Angerer M, Kahlert S, Spliethoff H (2017) Transient simulation and fatigue evaluation of fast gas turbine startups and shutdowns in a combined cycle plant with an innovative thermal buffer storage. Energy 130:246–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ayeni O, Wu C, Nandakumar K, Joshi J (2016) Development and validation of a new drag law using mechanical energy balance approach for DEM–CFD simulation of gas–solid fluidized bed. Chem Eng J 302:395–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Babu B, Chaurasia A (2004) Dominant design variables in pyrolysis of biomass particles of different geometries in thermally thick regime. Chem Eng Sci 59:611–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Backreedy R, Fletcher L, Jones J, Ma L, Pourkashanian M, Williams A (2005) Co-firing pulverised coal and biomass: a modeling approach. Proc Combust Inst 30:2955–2964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Benato A, Bracco S, Stoppato A, Mirandola A (2015a) Dynamic simulation of combined cycle power plant cycling in the electricity market. Energy Convers Manag 107:76–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Benato A, Stoppato A, Mirandola A (2015b) Dynamic behaviour analysis of a three pressure level heat recovery steam generator during transient operation. Energy 90:1595–1605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bhambare K, Mitra SK, Gaitonde U (2007) Modeling of a coal-fired natural circulation boiler. J Energy Res Technol 129:159–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bhuiyan AA, Naser J (2015) CFD modelling of co-firing of biomass with coal under oxy-fuel combustion in a large scale power plant. Fuel 159:150–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bhuiyan AA, Naser J (2016) Modelling of slag deposition and flow characteristics of coal combustion under oxy-firing condition in a 550 MW tangentially fired furnace. Appl Therm Eng 106:221–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bhutta MMA, Hayat N, Bashir MH, Khan AR, Ahmad KN, Khan S (2012) CFD applications in various heat exchangers design: a review. Appl Therm Eng 32:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bizhaem HK, Tabrizi HB (2017) Investigating effect of pulsed flow on hydrodynamics of gas-solid fluidized bed using two-fluid model simulation and experiment. Powder Technol 311:328–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Casella F, Pretolani F (2006) Fast start-up of a combined-cycle power plant: a simulation study with Modelica. In: Proceedings 5th international modelica conference, pp 3–10Google Scholar
  17. Chen L, Yong SZ, Ghoniem AF (2012) Oxy-fuel combustion of pulverized coal: characterization, fundamentals, stabilization and CFD modeling. Prog Energy Combust Sci 38:156–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chen C, Zhou Z, Bollas GM (2017) Dynamic modeling, simulation and optimization of a subcritical steam power plant. Part I: plant model and regulatory control. Energy Convers Manag 145:324–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cléirigh CTÓ, Smith WJ (2014) Can CFD accurately predict the heat-transfer and pressure-drop performance of finned-tube bundles? Appl Therm Eng 73:681–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Costa M, Massarotti N, Mauro A, Arpino F, Rocco V (2016) CFD modelling of a RDF incineration plant. Appl Therm Eng 101:710–719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Deen N, Van Sint Annaland M, Van der Hoef M, Kuipers J (2007) Review of discrete particle modeling of fluidized beds. Chem Eng Sci 62:28–44CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  22. Di Blasi C (1998) Physico-chemical processes occurring inside a degrading two-dimensional anisotropic porous medium. Int J Heat Mass Transf 41:4139–4150CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  23. Diendorfer C, Haider M, Lauermann M (2014) Performance analysis of offshore solar power plants. Energy Procedia 49:2462–2471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Díez LI, Cortés C, Campo A (2005) Modelling of pulverized coal boilers: review and validation of on-line simulation techniques. Appl Therm Eng 25:1516–1533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. El Hefni B, Soler R (2015) Dynamic multi-configuration model of a 145 MWe concentrated solar power plant with the ThermoSysPro library (tower receiver, molten salt storage and steam generator). Energy Procedia 69:1249–1258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Faille D, Davelaar F (2009) Model based start-up optimization of a combined cycle power plant. Power Plants Power Sys Control, 197–202Google Scholar
  27. Falchetta M, Rossi A (2014) Dynamic simulation of the operation of a molten salt parabolic trough plant, comprising draining procedures. Energy Procedia 49:1328–1339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Farid MM, Jeong HJ, Kim KH, Lee J, Kim D, Hwang J (2017) Numerical investigation of particle transport hydrodynamics and coal combustion in an industrial-scale circulating fluidized bed combustor: effects of coal feeder positions and coal feeding rates. Fuel 192:187–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Flynn D (2003) Thermal power plant simulation and control. IETGoogle Scholar
  30. Galindo-García IF, Vázquez-Barragán AK, Rossano-Román M, (2014) CFD simulations of heat recovery steam generators including tube banks. In: ASME 2014 power conference, Baltimore, MDGoogle Scholar
  31. García IL, Álvarez JL, Blanco D (2011) Performance model for parabolic trough solar thermal power plants with thermal storage: comparison to operating plant data. Sol Energy 85:2443–2460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gryczka O, Heinrich S, Deen N, van Sint Annaland M, Kuipers J, Jacob M, Mörl L (2009) Characterization and CFD-modeling of the hydrodynamics of a prismatic spouted bed apparatus. Chem Eng Sci 64:3352–3375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hack H, Fan Z, Seltzer A, Alvarez J (2012) Advanced methods of HRSG design for life cycle optimization under fast startups. In: POWERGEN international, pp 11–13Google Scholar
  34. Hakkarainen E, Sihvonen T, Lappalainen J (2017) Dynamic modelling and simulation of CSP plant based on supercritical carbon dioxide closed Brayton cycle. In: AIP conference proceedings. AIP Publishing, p 070004Google Scholar
  35. Hauschke A, Leithner R (2009) Dynamic simulation of fouling and optimization of sootblowing intervals in a hard coal fired power plant. In: Energy, environment, ecosystems and sustainable development (EEESD’09). Athens, pp 301–304Google Scholar
  36. Herzog N, Schreiber M, Egbers C, Krautz HJ (2012) A comparative study of different CFD-codes for numerical simulation of gas–solid fluidized bed hydrodynamics. Comput Chem Eng 39:41–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hübel M, Meinke S, Andrén MT, Wedding C, Nocke J, Gierow C, Hassel E, Funkquist J (2017) Modelling and simulation of a coal-fired power plant for start-up optimisation. Appl Energy 208:319–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Huilin L, Shuyan W, Yunhua Z, Yang L, Gidaspow D, Ding J (2005) Prediction of particle motion in a two-dimensional bubbling fluidized bed using discrete hard-sphere model. Chem Eng Sci 60:3217–3231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jin B, Zhao H, Zheng C (2014) Dynamic simulation for mode switching strategy in a conceptual 600 MWe oxy-combustion pulverized-coal-fired boiler. Fuel 137:135–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kildashti K, Dong K, Samali B, Zheng Q, Yu A (2018) Evaluation of contact force models for discrete modelling of ellipsoidal particles. Chem Eng Sci 177:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kim TS, Lee DK, Ro ST (2000) Analysis of thermal stress evolution in the steam drum during start-up of a heat recovery steam generator. Appl Therm Eng 20:977–992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Larraín T, Escobar R, Vergara J (2010) Performance model to assist solar thermal power plant siting in northern Chile based on backup fuel consumption. Renew Energy 35:1632–1643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Le Bris T, Cadavid F, Caillat S, Pietrzyk S, Blondin J, Baudoin B (2007) Coal combustion modelling of large power plant, for NOx abatement. Fuel 86:2213–2220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Li D, Hu Y, He W, Wang J (2017a) Dynamic modelling and simulation of a combined-cycle power plant integration with thermal energy storage. In: Automation and computing (ICAC), 2017 23rd international conference on. IEEE, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  45. Li Z, Janssen T, Buist K, Deen N, van Sint Annaland M, Kuipers J (2017b) Experimental and simulation study of heat transfer in fluidized beds with heat production. Chem Eng J 317:242–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lin H, Ma X (2012) Simulation of co-incineration of sewage sludge with municipal solid waste in a grate furnace incinerator. Waste Manag 32:561–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Link JM (2006) Development and validation of a discrete particle model of a spout-fluid bed granulator. PrintPartners IpskampGoogle Scholar
  48. Liu S, Faille D, Fouquet M, El-Hefni B, Wang Y, Zhang J, Wang Z, Chen G, Soler R (2015) Dynamic simulation of a 1 MWe CSP tower plant with two-level thermal storage implemented with control system. Energy Procedia 69:1335–1343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Liu Y, Fan W, Li Y (2016) Numerical investigation of air-staged combustion emphasizing char gasification and gas temperature deviation in a large-scale, tangentially fired pulverized-coal boiler. Appl Energy 177:323–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Liu H, Li J, Wang Q (2017) Simulation of gas–solid flow characteristics in a circulating fluidized bed based on a computational particle fluid dynamics model. Powder Technol 321:132–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Loha C, Chattopadhyay H, Chatterjee PK (2014) Effect of coefficient of restitution in Euler-Euler CFD simulation of fluidized-bed hydrodynamics. Particuology 15:170–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Luo N, Yu G, Hou H, Yang Y (2015) Dynamic modeling and simulation of parabolic trough solar system. Energy Procedia 69:1344–1348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lv X, Li H, Zhu Q (2014) Simulation of gas–solid flow in 2D/3D bubbling fluidized beds by combining the two-fluid model with structure-based drag model. Chem Eng J 236:149–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Manenti F, Ravaghi-Ardebili Z (2013) Dynamic simulation of concentrating solar power plant and two-tanks direct thermal energy storage. Energy 55:89–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Nelson J, Johnson NG, Doron P, Stechel EB (2018) Thermodynamic modeling of solarized microturbine for combined heat and power applications. Appl Energy 212:592–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Neuman P, Pokorny M, Varcop L, Weiglhofer W, Javed A (2002) Engineering and operator training simulator of coal-fired steam boiler. In: Proc 10th Int Conference MATLABGoogle Scholar
  57. Oko E, Wang M (2014) Dynamic modelling, validation and analysis of coal-fired subcritical power plant. Fuel 135:292–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Österholma R, Pålssonb J (2014) Dynamic modelling of a parabolic trough solar power plant. In: Proceedings of the 10th international modelica conference, Lund, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  59. Park HY, Baek SH, Kim YJ, Kim TH, Kang DS, Kim DW (2013) Numerical and experimental investigations on the gas temperature deviation in a large scale, advanced low NOx, tangentially fired pulverized coal boiler. Fuel 104:641–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Powell KM, Edgar TF (2012) Modeling and control of a solar thermal power plant with thermal energy storage. Chem Eng Sci 71:138–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ravelli S, Perdichizzi A, Barigozzi G (2008) Description, applications and numerical modelling of bubbling fluidized bed combustion in waste-to-energy plants. Prog Energy Combust Sci 34:224–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Richter M, Möllenbruck F, Starinsk A, Oeljeklaus G, Görner K (2015) Flexibilization of coal-fired power plants by dynamic simulation. In: Proceedings of the 11th international modelica conference, pp 715–723. Linköping University Electronic Press, Versailles, France, Sept 21–23, 2015Google Scholar
  63. Romero A, Chacartegui R, Becerra JA, Carvalho M, Millar DL (2017) Analysis of the start-up and variable load operation of a combined cycle power plant for off-grid mines. Int J Glob Warming 13:330–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rossi I, Sorce A, Traverso A (2017) Gas turbine combined cycle start-up and stress evaluation: a simplified dynamic approach. Appl Energy 190:880–890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Russo V (2014) CSP plant thermal-hydraulic simulation. Energy Procedia 49:1533–1542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sahu AK, Raghavan V, Prasad B (2018) Temperature effects on hydrodynamics of dense gas-solid flows: application to bubbling fluidized bed reactors. Int J Therm Sci 124:387–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Schuhbauer C, Angerer M, Spliethoff H, Kluger F, Tschaffon H (2014) Coupled simulation of a tangentially hard coal fired 700 ° C boiler. Fuel 122:149–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sheng C, Moghtaderi B, Gupta R, Wall TF (2004) A computational fluid dynamics based study of the combustion characteristics of coal blends in pulverised coal-fired furnace. Fuel 83:1543–1552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Shin H, Kim D, Ahn H, Choi S, Myoung G (2012) Investigation of the flow pattern in a complex inlet duct of a heat recovery steam generator. Energy Power 2:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sindareh-Esfahani P, Habibi-Siyahposh E, Saffar-Avval M, Ghaffari A, Bakhtiari-Nejad F (2014) Cold start-up condition model for heat recovery steam generators. Appl Therm Eng 65:502–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sindareh-Esfahani P, Tabatabaei SS, Pieper JK (2017) Model predictive control of a heat recovery steam generator during cold start-up operation using piecewise linear models. Appl Therm Eng 119:516–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Spliethoff H (2010) Power generation from solid fuels. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Stopford PJ (2002) Recent applications of CFD modelling in the power generation and combustion industries. Appl Math Model 26:351–374CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  74. Stuetzle T, Blair N, Mitchell JW, Beckman WA (2004) Automatic control of a 30 MWe SEGS VI parabolic trough plant. Sol Energy 76:187–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sutkar VS, Deen NG, Kuipers J (2013) Spout fluidized beds: recent advances in experimental and numerical studies. Chem Eng Sci 86:124–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sutkar VS, Deen NG, Patil AV, Salikov V, Antonyuk S, Heinrich S, Kuipers J (2016) CFD–DEM model for coupled heat and mass transfer in a spout fluidized bed with liquid injection. Chem Eng J 288:185–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Tsuji Y, Tanaka T, Ishida T (1992) Lagrangian numerical simulation of plug flow of cohesionless particles in a horizontal pipe. Powder Technol 71:239–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Tsuji Y, Kawaguchi T, Tanaka T (1993) Discrete particle simulation of two-dimensional fluidized bed. Powder Technol 77:79–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Vashisth S, Motlagh AA, Tebianian S, Salcudean M, Grace J (2015) Comparison of numerical approaches to model FCC particles in gas–solid bubbling fluidized bed. Chem Eng Sci 134:269–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wagner PH, Wittmann M (2014) Influence of different operation strategies on transient solar thermal power plant simulation models with molten salt as heat transfer fluid. Energy Procedia 49:1652–1663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Walter H, Epple B (2016) Numerical simulation of power plants and firing systems. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  82. Walter H, Linzer W (2005) Numerical simulation of a three stage natural circulation heat recovery steam generator. naGoogle Scholar
  83. Wan A, Gu F, Jin J, Gu X, Ji Y (2016) Modeling and optimization of shutdown process of combined cycle gas turbine under limited residual natural gas. Appl Therm Eng 101:337–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wang T, He Y, Kim DR (2015) Granular temperature and rotational characteristic analysis of a gas–solid bubbling fluidized bed under different gravities using discrete hard sphere model. Powder Technol 271:35–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Xia Z, Li J, Wu T, Chen C, Zhang X (2014) CFD simulation of MSW combustion and SNCR in a commercial incinerator. Waste Manag 34:1609–1618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Yadigaroglu G, Hewitt GF (2017) Introduction to multiphase flow: basic concepts, applications and modelling. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  87. Zehtner W, Spliethoff H, Woyke W (2008) Analysis and optimisation of operation of modern hard coal-fired power plants through simulation. VGB PowerTech 88:28–32Google Scholar
  88. Zha Q, Li D, Wang CA, Che D (2017) Numerical evaluation of heat transfer and NOx emissions under deep-air-staging conditions within a 600 MW e tangentially fired pulverized-coal boiler. Appl Therm Eng 116:170–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Zhang H, Zhou Z, Yu A, Kim S-Y, Jung S-K (2017) Discrete particle simulation of solid flow in a melter-gasifier in smelting reduction process. Powder Technol 314:641–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Zhong W, Yu A, Liu X, Tong Z, Zhang H (2016) DEM/CFD-DEM modelling of non-spherical particulate systems: theoretical developments and applications. Powder Technol 302:108–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Zhu H, Zhou Z, Yang R, Yu A (2007) Discrete particle simulation of particulate systems: theoretical developments. Chem Eng Sci 62:3378–3396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Zindler H, Walter H, Hauschke A, Leithner R (2008) Dynamic simulation of a 800 MWel hard coal one-through supercritical power plant to fulfill the great britain grid code. In: 6th IASME/WSEAS international conference on heat transfer, thermal engineering and environment, Rhodes, Greece, pp 184–192Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Forschungsgruppenleiter des Inst. für Energiesysteme und Energietechnik (EST)Technische Universität DarmstadtDarmstadtGermany

Personalised recommendations