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Nanomedical Applications of Nanoparticles for Blood Coagulation Disorders

  • Agbaje Lateef
  • Sunday Ayotunde Ojo
  • Joseph Adetunji Elegbede
  • Paul Oluwadamilare Akinola
  • Emmanuel Olufemi Akanni
Chapter
Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW, volume 14)

Abstract

Nanotechnology has evolved as a novel multidisciplinary concept of the twenty-first century, abridging gaps in materials science, engineering, life sciences and medicine, with tremendous applications in diverse areas of human endeavours. Nanoparticles, which form critical components of nanoscience and nanotechnology, have also played prominent roles in extending the frontiers of applications of the emerging discipline. The metallic nanoparticles, owing to their unique optical, surface, chemical, biological, catalytic, electronic, and resonance properties have formed an epicentre of research in recent times, with major focus on synthesis and novel applications. A new line of application that has emerged is in the delivery of quality healthcare, leading to the offshoot of a sub-discipline, nanomedicine. A major health problem confronting man is the blood coagulation disorder, which often leads to cardiovascular diseases, with the attendant high mortality worldwide. The use of conventional drugs in the treatment blood coagulation has been plagued with problems of high cost, short-lived action and adverse severe reactions. Hence, there is need to search for newer treatment regimes with improved outcomes, of which nanotechnology holds a promising future. In this review, we focus on the emerging applications of metallic nanoparticles in the management of blood coagulation disorders; notably in the prevention of clot formation, dissolution of blood clots, and in the combined role of therapeutic and diagnostic agents. The review presents a comprehensive overview on blood coagulation disorders, synthesis and applications of metallic nanoparticles, and the novel management of blood coagulation disorders using nanoplatform deliveries. Emphasis has been placed on the prospects of the use of metallic nanoparticles such as silver, gold and silver-gold alloy nanoparticles as anticoagulant, thrombolytic and theranostic agents, with evidences of excellent performances in the prevention of blood clot formation, dissolution of blood clots, and enhanced imaging of thrombus (blood clot) in vivo. The increasing appraisals of these nanoplatforms, potent action, improved biocompatibility cum absence of complications of excessive bleeding are good indicators of potential future integration in the clinical management of blood coagulation disorders. However, diligent studies are needed to be conducted to establish the long-term safety of applications of these nanomedical materials. The compendium seeks to bring to the fore, the continued relevance of nanotechnology in the twenty-first century, and its potential dynamic integration into medicare programmes.

Keywords

Blood coagulation disorders Anticoagulation Thrombolysis Nanotechnology Nanoparticles Nanomedicine Cardiovascular diseases Theranostics Green synthesis Healthcare 

Notes

Acknowledgement

AL is grateful to the authority of LAUTECH., Ogbomoso, Nigeria for the support to his laboratory on some of the works on nanoscience and nanotechnology that are cited in this article.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Agbaje Lateef
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sunday Ayotunde Ojo
    • 2
  • Joseph Adetunji Elegbede
    • 2
  • Paul Oluwadamilare Akinola
    • 2
  • Emmanuel Olufemi Akanni
    • 3
  1. 1.Nanotechnology Research Group (NANO+)Ladoke Akintola University of TechnologyOgbomosoNigeria
  2. 2.Laboratory of Industrial Microbiology and Nanobiotechnology, Department of Pure and Applied BiologyLadoke Akintola University of TechnologyOgbomosoNigeria
  3. 3.Division of Hematology, Department of Medical Laboratory ScienceLAUTECH College of Health SciencesOsogboNigeria

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