Advertisement

Epidemiology and Pathophysiology of Food Insecurity

  • Kofi EsselEmail author
  • Kelly A. Courts
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Public Health book series (BRIEFSPUBLIC)

Abstract

This chapter outlines the history of food insecurity (FI) in the United States. In so doing, key terminology is introduced and defined. The discussion extends to currently available and used FI measurement tools. Moreover, at-risk populations, and health outcomes of relevance to FI provide the reader with a baseline understanding for future screening, intervention, management, and advocacy. Specifically, FI is positioned, in this chapter, as a significant social determinant of health (SDH), one that affects 1 in 8 U.S. households; 1 in 6 with children. FI prevalence is highest amongst low income households, but nearly 25% of households with children experiencing FI have incomes >185% of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL). Any household with children is at higher risk for FI. Other households with a high prevalence of FI include those headed by single parents and those led by ethnic or racial minorities. Children, families, and households that experience hardships like FI also frequently experience related physical health, mental health, psychosocial, developmental, and academic challenges. Clinicians must be aware of the prevalence and significance of FI to provide better care and to more effectively meet the needs of their patients and families.

Keywords

Food Insecurity Social Determinants of Health Obesity Paradox Poverty 

Abbreviations

ASEC

Annual Social and Economic Supplement (report)

CPS

Current Population Survey

DHHS

Department of Health and Human Services

FI

Food Insecurity

FPL

Federal Poverty Level

HFSSM

Household Food Security Survey Module

LSRO

Life Sciences Research Office

NHANES

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

NNMRR

National Nutrition Monitoring and Related Research Act

SDH

Social Determinants of Health

USDA

United States Department of Agriculture

References

  1. 1.
    Shonkoff JP, Garner AS, Siegel BS, Dobbins MI, Earls MF, Garner AS, et al. The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress. Pediatrics. 2012;129(1):e232–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Johnson SB, Riley AW, Granger DA, Riis J. The science of early life toxic stress for pediatric practice and advocacy. Pediatrics. 2013;131(2):319–27.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Marmot M, Friel S, Bell R, Houweling TAJ, Taylor S, Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Lancet. 2008;372(9650):1661–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Galea S, Tracy M, Hoggatt KJ, Dimaggio C, Karpati A. Estimated deaths attributable to social factors in the United States. Am J Public Health. 2011;101(8):1456–65.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Anderson SA. Core indicators of nutritional state for difficult-to-sample populations. J Nutr. 1990;120(Suppl 11):1559–600.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Coleman-Jensen A, Rabbitt MP, Gregory CA, Singh A. Household Food Security in the United States in 2016. 2017 [cited 2017 Sep 18]. Available from: https://www.ers.usda.gov/webdocs/publications/84973/err-237.pdf?v=42979.
  7. 7.
    Messer E, Ross EM. Talking to patients about food insecurity. Nutr Clin Care. 2002;5(4):168–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Council NR. Food insecurity and hunger in the United States [Internet]. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2006. [cited 2017 Sep 18]. Available from: http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11578.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Alaimo K. Food insecurity in the United States. Top Clin Nutr. 2005;20(4):281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bickel G, Nord M, Price C, Hamilton W, Cook J. Measuring food security in the United States guide to measuring household food security revised 2000. [cited 2017 Sep 23]. Available from: http://www.fns.usda.gov/oane.
  11. 11.
    Radimer KL, Olson CM, Campbell CC. Development of indicators to assess hunger. J Nutr. 1990;120(Suppl):1544–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Radimer KL, Olson CM, Greene JC, Campbell CC, Habicht J-P. Understanding hunger and developing indicators to assess it in women and children. J Nutr Educ. 1992;24(1):36S–44S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hamelin AM, Habicht JP, Beaudry M. Food insecurity: consequences for the household and broader social implications. J Nutr. 1999;129(2S Suppl):525S–8S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hamelin A-M, Beaudry M, Habicht J-P. Characterization of household food insecurity in Québec: food and feelings. Soc Sci Med. 2002;54(1):119–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jones AD, Ngure FM, Pelto G, Young SL. What are we assessing when we measure food security? A compendium and review of current metrics. Adv Nutr. 2013;4(5):481–505.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cook JT, Black M, Chilton M, Cutts D, Ettinger de Cuba S, Heeren TC, et al. Are Food Insecurity’s Health Impacts Underestimated in the U.S. Population? Marginal Food Security Also Predicts Adverse Health Outcomes in Young U.S. Children and Mothers. Adv Nutr An Int Rev J. 2013;4(1):51–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Coleman-Jensen A, Rabbitt MP, Gregory CA, Singh A. United States Department of Agriculture Statistical Supplement to Household Food Security in the United States in 2016. 2017 [cited 2017 Sep 24]. Available from: https://www.ers.usda.gov/webdocs/publications/84981/ap-077.pdf?v=42979.
  18. 18.
    Frongillo EA. Validation of measures of food insecurity and hunger. J Nutr. 1999;129(2S Suppl):506S–9S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Map the Meal Gap, 2017: Highlights of Findings For Overall and Child Food Insecurity. [cited 2017 Sep 24]. Available from: http://www.feedingamerica.org/research/map-the-meal-gap/2015/2015-mapthemealgap-exec-summary.pdf.
  20. 20.
    National Research Council; Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education; Institute of Medicine; Committee on National Statistics; Food and Nutrition Board. Research Opportunities Concerning the Causes and Consequences of Child Food Insecurity and Hunger [Internet]. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press; 2013 [cited 2017 Sep 24]. Available from: http://www.nap.edu/catalog/18504.
  21. 21.
    Cohen B, Parry J, Yang K. Household Food Security in the United States, 1998 and 1999 Detailed Statistical Report. 2002 [cited 2017 Sep 24]. Available from: https://www.ers.usda.gov/webdocs/publications/43142/35929_efan02011fm.pdf?v=41528.
  22. 22.
    Nord M, Romig K. Hunger in the Summer. J Child Poverty. 2006;12(2):141–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nord M, Kantor LS. Seasonal variation in food insecurity is associated with heating and cooling costs among low-income elderly Americans. J Nutr. 2006;136(11):2939–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Berkowitz SA, Seligman HK, Basu S. Impact of food insecurity and SNAP participation on healthcare utilization and expenditures. [cited 2017 Nov 17]. Available from: https://uknowledge.uky.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1105&context=ukcpr_papers.
  25. 25.
    Knowles M, Rabinowich J, De Cuba SE, Cutts DB, Chilton M, et al. “Do You Wanna Breathe or Eat?”: Parent perspectives on child health consequences of food insecurity, trade-offs, and toxic stress. Matern Child Health J. 2016;20:25–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wilde PE, Nord M, Zager RE. In longitudinal data from the survey of program dynamics, 16.9% of the U.S. population was exposed to household food insecurity in a 5-Year period. J Hunger Environ Nutr. 2010;5(3):380–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ryu J-H, Bartfeld JS. Household food insecurity during childhood and subsequent health status: the early childhood longitudinal study—Kindergarten Cohort. Am J Public Health. 2012;102(11):e50–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chilton M, Black MM, Berkowitz C, Casey PH, Cook J, Cutts D, et al. Food insecurity and risk of poor health among US-born children of immigrants. Am J Public Health. 2009;99(3):556–62.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jyoti DF, Frongillo EA, Jones SJ. Food insecurity affects school children’s academic performance, weight gain, and social skills. J Nutr. 2005;135(12):2831–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chilton M, Chyatte M, Breaux J. The negative effects of poverty & food insecurity on child development. Indian J Med Res. 2007;126(4):262–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sun J, Knowles M, Patel F, Frank DA, Heeren TC, Chilton M. Childhood adversity and adult reports of food insecurity among households with children. Am J Prev Med. 2016;50(5):561–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Fram MS, Frongillo EA, Jones SJ, Williams RC, Burke MP, DeLoach KP, et al. Children are aware of food insecurity and take responsibility for managing food resources. J Nutr. 2011;141(6):1114–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Semega JL, Fontenot KR, Kollar MA. Income and poverty in the United States: 2016. 2017 [cited 2017 Sep 26]. Available from: https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2017/demo/P60-259.pdf.
  34. 34.
  35. 35.
    Burkhardt MC, Beck AF, Kahn RS, Klein MD. Are our babies hungry? Food insecurity among infants in urban clinics. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2012;51(3):238–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Swanson JA, Olson CM, Miller EO, Lawrence FC. Rural mothers’ use of formal programs and informal social supports to meet family food needs: a mixed methods study. J Fam Econ Iss. 2008;29(4):674–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gundersen C, Kreider B, Pepper J. The economics of food insecurity in the United States. Appl Econ Perspect Policy. 2011;33(3):281–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Nord M, Brent CP. Food insecurity in higher income households. 2002 [cited 2017 Sep 26]. Available from: https://www.ers.usda.gov/webdocs/publications/43200/31163_efan02016_002.pdf?v=41479.
  39. 39.
    Edin K, Lein L. Making ends meet: how single mothers survive welfare and low-wage work. New York: Russell Sage Foundation; 1997. 305 p.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gundersen C, Ziliak JP. Childhood food insecurity in the U.S.: trends, causes, and policy options. Futur Child. 2014;24(2):1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Coleman-Jensen A, McFall W, Nord M. Food Insecurity in Households With Children. 2013 [cited 2017 Sep 18];2010–1. Available from: http://www.ers.usda.gov.
  42. 42.
    McIntyre L, Glanville NT, Raine KD, Dayle JB, Anderson B, Battaglia N. Do low-income lone mothers compromise their nutrition to feed their children? CMAJ. 2003;168(6):686–91.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Nord M. Youth are less likely to be food insecure than adults in the same household. J Hunger Environ Nutr. 2013;8(2):146–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Connell CL, Lofton KL, Yadrick K, Rehner TA. Children’s experiences of food insecurity can assist in understanding its effect on their well-being. J Nutr. 2005;135(7):1683–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Popkin SJ, Scott MM, Galvez M. Impossible choices: teens and food insecurity in America. 2016 [cited 2017 Sep 26]. Available from: https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/alfresco/publication-pdfs/2000914-Impossible-Choices-Teens-and-Food-Insecurity-in-America.pdf.
  46. 46.
    Coleman-Jensen A, McFall W, Nord M. Food insecurity in households with children: prevalence, severity, and household characteristics, 2010–11/Alisha Coleman-Jensen, William McFall, Mark Nord. [Internet]. 2013. (Economic Information Bulletin: number 113). Available from: http://proxygw.wrlc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsgpr&AN=gpr000903180&site=eds-live&scope=site&authtype=ip,uid&custid=s8987071.
  47. 47.
    Alaimo K, Olson CM, Frongillo EA. Food insufficiency and American school-aged children’s cognitive, academic, and psychosocial development. Pediatrics. 2001;108(1):44–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Alaimo K, Olson CM, Frongillo EA. Family food insufficiency, but not low family income, is positively associated with dysthymia and suicide symptoms in adolescents. J Nutr. 2002;132(4):719–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Casey PH, Szeto KL, Robbins JM, Stuff JE, Connell C, Gossett JM, et al. Child health-related quality of life and household food security. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005;159(1):51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    McLaughlin KA, Green JG, Alegría M, Jane Costello E, Gruber MJ, Sampson NA, et al. Food insecurity and mental disorders in a national sample of U.S. adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012;51(12):1293–303.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Mary Morris L, Smith S, Davis J, Bloyd ND. The prevalence of food security and insecurity among Illinois University students. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2016;48:376–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bruening M, Brennhofer S, van Woerden I, Todd M, Laska M. Factors related to the high rates of food insecurity among diverse, urban college freshmen. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016 Sep;116(9):1450–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hughes R, Serebryanikova I, Donaldson K, Leveritt M. Student food insecurity: the skeleton in the university closet. Nutr Diet. 2011;68(1):27–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Patton-López MM, López-Cevallos DF, Cancel-Tirado DI, Vazquez L. Prevalence and correlates of food insecurity among students attending a Midsize Rural University in Oregon. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2014;46(3):209–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Payne-Sturges DC, Tjaden A, Caldeira KM, Vincent KB, Arria AM. Student hunger on campus: food insecurity among college students and implications for academic institutions. Am J Health Promot. 2017;1:890117117719620. [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Farahbakhsh J, Ball GDC, Farmer AP, Maximova K, Hanbazaza M, Willows ND. How do student clients of a university-based Food Bank Cope with food insecurity? Can J Diet Pract Res. 2015;76(4):200–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Maroto ME, Snelling A, Linck H. Food insecurity among community college students: prevalence and association with grade point average. Community Coll J Res Pract. 2015;39(6):515–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hadley C, Patil CL, Nahayo D. Difficulty in the food environment and the experience of food insecurity among refugees resettled in the United States. Ecol Food Nutr. 2010;49(5):390–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kalil A, Chen J-H. Mothers’ citizenship status and household food insecurity among low-income children of immigrants. New Dir Child Adolesc Dev. 2008;2008(121):43–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Balistreri K, Hall W. Family structure, work patterns and time alloca-tions: potential mechanisms of food insecurity among children. 2012 [cited 2017 Sep 26]. Available from: http://uknowledge.uky.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1031&context=ukcpr_papers.
  61. 61.
    Cook J. Risk and protective factors associated with prevalence of VLFS in children among children of foreign-born mothers. [cited 2017 Sep 26]. Available from: http://uknowledge.uky.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1011&context=ukcpr_papers.
  62. 62.
    Hager ER, Quigg AM, Black MM, Coleman SM, Heeren T, Rose-Jacobs R, et al. Development and validity of a 2-item screen to identify families at risk for food insecurity. Pediatrics. 2010;126(1):e26 LP–e32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Black MM, Drennen C, Gallego N, Coleman S, Frank DA. Household food insecurity is associated with children’s health and developmental risks, but not with age-specific obesity and underweight. FASEB J. 2017;31(1 Supplement):791.17.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Cook JT, Frank DA, Berkowitz C, Black MM, Casey PH, Cutts DB, et al. Food insecurity is associated with adverse health outcomes among human infants and toddlers. J Nutr. 2004;134(6):1432–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Eicher-Miller HA, Mason AC, Weaver CM, McCabe GP, Boushey CJ. Food insecurity is associated with iron deficiency anemia in US adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(5):1358–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Skalicky A, Meyers AF, Adams WG, Yang Z, Cook JT, Frank DA. Child food insecurity and iron deficiency anemia in low-income infants and toddlers in the United States. Matern Child Health J. 2006;10(2):177–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kirkpatrick SI, McIntryre L, Potestio ML. Child hunger and long-term adverse consequences for health. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2010;164(8):754–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Chi DL, Masterson EE, Carle AC, Mancl LA, Coldwell SE. Socioeconomic status, food security, and dental caries in us children: Mediation analyses of data from the national health and nutrition examination survey, 2007–2008. Am J Public Health. 2014;104(5):860–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hales CM, Carroll MD, Fryar CD, Ogden CL. Prevalence of obesity among adults and youth: United States, 2015–2016. NCHS Data Brief. 2017;288:1–8.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Frongillo EA, Bernal J. Understanding the coexistence of food insecurity and obesity. Curr Pediatr Rep. 2014;2(4):284–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Dietz WH. Does hunger cause obesity? Pediatrics. 1995;95(5):766–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Larson NI, Story MT, Nelson MC. Neighborhood environments. Am J Prev Med. 2009;36(1):74–81.e10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Bruening M, MacLehose R, Loth K, Story M, Neumark-Sztainer D. Feeding a family in a recession: food insecurity among Minnesota parents. Am J Public Health. 2012;102(3):520–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Dammann K, Smith C. Food-related attitudes and behaviors at home, school, and restaurants: perspectives from racially diverse, urban, low-income 9- to 13-year-old children in Minnesota. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2010;42(6):389–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Scheier LM. What is the hunger-obesity paradox? J Am Diet Assoc. 2005;105(6):883–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Drewnowski A, Specter SE. Poverty and obesity: the role of energy density and energy costs. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(1):6–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kaur J, Lamb MM, Ogden CL. The association between food insecurity and obesity in children—The national health and nutrition examination survey. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2015;115(5):751–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Casey PH, Simpson PM, Gossett JM, Bogle ML, Champagne CM, Connell C, et al. The association of child and household food insecurity with childhood overweight status. Pediatrics. 2006;118(5):e1406–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Dubois L, Farmer A, Girard M, Porcherie M. Family food insufficiency is related to overweight among preschoolers. Soc Sci Med. 2006;63(6):1503–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Casey PH, Szeto K, Lensing S, Bogle M, Weber J. Children in food-insufficient, low-income families: prevalence, health, and nutrition status. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2001;155(4):508–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Rose D, Bodor JN. Household food insecurity and overweight status in young school children: results from the early childhood longitudinal study. Pediatrics. 2006;117(2):464–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Matheson DM, Varady J, Varady A, Killen JD. Household food security and nutritional status of Hispanic children in the fifth grade. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76(1):210–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Jiménez-Cruz A, Bacardí-Gascón M, Spindler AA. Obesity and hunger among Mexican-Indian migrant children on the US-Mexico border. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003;27(6):740–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Gundersen C, Garasky S, Lohman BJ. Food insecurity is not associated with childhood obesity as assessed using multiple measures of obesity. J Nutr. 2009;139(6):1173–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Trapp CM, Burke G, Gorin AA, Wiley JF, Hernandez D, Crowell RE, et al. The relationship between dietary patterns, body mass index percentile, and household food security in young urban children. Child Obes. 2015;11(2):148–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Bhargava A, Jolliffe D, Howard LL. Socio-economic, behavioural and environmental factors predicted body weights and household food insecurity scores in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten. Br J Nutr. 2008;100(2):438–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Ma CT, Gee L, Kushel MB. Associations between housing instability and food insecurity with health care access in low-income children. Ambul Pediatr. 2008;8(1):50–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Palakshappa D, Khan S, Feudtner C, Fiks AG. Acute health care utilization among food-insecure children in primary care practices. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2016;27(3):1143–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Lawson NR, Klein MD, Ollberding NJ, Wurster Ovalle V, Beck AF. The impact of infant well-child care compliance and social risks on emergency department utilization. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2017;56(10):920–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Molcho M, Gabhainn SN, Kelly C, Friel S, Kelleher C. Food poverty and health among schoolchildren in Ireland: findings from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Public Health Nutr. 2007;10(4):364–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    McIntyre L, Williams JVA, Lavorato DH, Patten S. Depression and suicide ideation in late adolescence and early adulthood are an outcome of child hunger. J Affect Disord. 2013;150(1):123–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    McIntyre L, Wu X, Kwok C, Patten SB. The pervasive effect of youth self-report of hunger on depression over 6 years of follow up. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2017;52(5):537–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Stickley A, Leinsalu M. Childhood hunger and depressive symptoms in adulthood: findings from a population-based study. J Affect Disord. 2018;226:332–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Melchior M, Chastang J-F, Falissard B, Dric C, Ra G, Tremblay RE, et al. Food insecurity and children’s mental health: a prospective birth cohort study. PLoS One. 2012;7(12):e52615.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Edwards OW, Taub GE. Children and youth perceptions of family food insecurity and bullying. Sch Ment Heal. 2017;9(3):263–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Robson SM, Lozano AJ, Papas M, Patterson F. Food insecurity and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents. Prev Chronic Dis. 2017;14:170222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Jackson DB, Newsome J, Vaughn MG, Johnson KR. Considering the role of food insecurity in low self-control and early delinquency. J Crim Justice. 14 July 2017 Jul [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Howard LL. Does food insecurity at home affect non-cognitive performance at school? A longitudinal analysis of elementary student classroom behavior. Econ Educ Rev. 2010;30:157–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kimbro RT, Denney JT. Transitions into food insecurity associated with behavioral problems and worse overall health among children. Health Aff (Millwood). 2015;34(11):1949–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Stormer, A, Harrison GG. Does household food security affect cognitive and social development of Kindergartners? – Policy file index – ProQuest [Internet]. Institute for Research on Poverty. 2003 [cited 2017 Nov 25]. Available from: https://proxy.library.upenn.edu:7450/policyfile/docview/1820849651.
  101. 101.
    Shankar P, Chung R, Frank DA. Association of food insecurity with children’s behavioral, emotional, and academic outcomes: a systematic review. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2017;38(2):135–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Winicki J, Jemison K. Food insecurity and hunger in the Kindergarten classroom: its effect on learning and growth. Contemp Econ Policy. 2003;21(2):145–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Joyti DF, Frongillo EA, Jones SJ. Food insecurity affects school children’s academic performance, weight gain, and social skills. J Nutr. 2005;135:2891–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Gundersen C. Measuring the extent, depth, and severity of food insecurity: an application to American Indians in the USA. J Popul Econ. 2008;21(1):191–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Gordon C, Purciel-Hill M, Ghai NR, Kaufman L, Graham R, Van Wye G. Measuring food deserts in New York City’s low-income neighborhoods. Health Place. 2011;17(2):696–700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Coleman-Jensen AJ. Working for peanuts: nonstandard work and food insecurity across household structure. J Fam Econ Iss. 2011;32(1):84–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Children’s National Health SystemThe George Washington University School of Medicine & Health SciencesWashingtonUSA
  2. 2.St. Christopher’s Hospital for Children, Drexel UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations