Advertisement

Applications of the Cumulative Rate to Kidney Cancer Statistics in Australia

  • Janelle Brennan
  • K. C. Chan
  • Rebecca Kippen
  • C. T. Lenard
  • T. M. Mills
  • Ruth F. G. Williams
Chapter
Part of the The Springer Series on Demographic Methods and Population Analysis book series (PSDE, volume 46)

Abstract

Cancer incidence and mortality statistics in two populations are usually compared by using either the age-standardised rate or the cumulative risk by a certain age. We argue that the cumulative rate is a superior measure because it obviates the need for a standard population, and is not open to misinterpretation as is the case for cumulative risk. Then we illustrate the application of the cumulative rate by analysing incidence and mortality data for kidney cancer in Australia using the cumulative rate. Kidney cancer, which is also known as malignant neoplasm of kidney, is one of the less common cancers in Australia. In 2012, approximately 2.5% of all new cases of cancer were kidney cancer, and approximately 2.1% of all cancer related deaths in Australia were due to kidney cancer. There is variation in incidence and mortality by sex, age, and geographical location in Australia. We examine how the cumulative rate performs in measuring the variation of this disease across such sub-populations. This is part of our e ort to promote the use of the cumulative rate as an alternative to the age-standardised rates or cumulative risk. In addition we hope that this statistical investigation will contribute to the aetiology of the disease from an Australian perspective.

Keywords

Kidney cancer Renal cell carcinoma Incidence Mortality Cumulative rate Descriptive epidemiology 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the organisers of 4th SMTDA2016 Valletta, Malta, 1–4 June 2016, University of Malta for the opportunity to present our work. Bendigo Health is supported by the government of the state of Victoria in Australia.

References

  1. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW). (2016). Australian Cancer Incidence and Mortality (ACIM) books. Canberra: AIHW. URL: http://www.aihw.gov.au/acim-books. Viewed on 12 April 2016.
  2. Chan, K. C., Lenard, C. T., Mills, T. M., & Williams, R. F. G. (2015). Bowel cancer demo-graphics. In A. Karagrigoriou, T. Oliveira, & C. H. Skiadas (Eds.), Statistical, stochastic and data analysis methods and applications. Athens: International Society for the Advancement of Science and Technology. (to appear).Google Scholar
  3. Day, N. E. (1976). A new measure of age standardized incidence, the cumulative rate. In R. Payne & J. Waterhouse (Eds.), Cancer incidence in five continents (Vol. III, pp. 443–452). Lyon: IARC Scienti c Publications, No. 15. International Agency for Research on Cancer.Google Scholar
  4. De, P., Otterstatter, M. C., Semenciw, R., Ellison, L. F., Marrett, L. D., & Dryer, D. (2014). Trends in incidence, mortality, and survival for kidney cancer in Canada, 1986–2007. Cancer Causes & Control, 25(10), 1271–1281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Lenard, C. T., Mills, T. M., & Williams, R. F. G. (2013). The risk of being diagnosed with cancer. Australian & New Zealand Jounal of Public Health, 37(5), 489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Lenard, C. T., Mills, T. M., & Williams, R. F. G. (2014). Cumulative incidence rates of cancer. The Mathematical Scientist, 39(2), 83–89.Google Scholar
  7. Lenard, C. T., Mills, T. M., & Williams, R. F. G. (2015). Comparing the cumulative rates of cancer in two populations. In L. Filus, T. Oliveira, & C. H. Skiadas CH (Eds.), Stochastic modeling, data analysis and statistical applications (pp. 13–20). Athens: International Society for the Advancement of Science and Technology.Google Scholar
  8. Li, P., Znaor, A., Holcatova, I., Fabianova, E., Mates, D., Wozniak, M. B., Ferlay, J., & Scelo, G. (2015). Regional geographic variations in kidney cancer incidence rates in European countries. European Urology, 67(6), 1134–1141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Satasivam, P., O’Neill, S., Sivarajah, G., Sliwinski, A., Kaiser, C., Niall, O., Goad, J., & Brennan, J. (2014). The dilemma of distance: Patients with kidney cancer from regional Australia present at a more advanced stage. BJU International, 113(Suppl 2), 57–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Tan, H. J., Filson, C. P., & Litwin, M. S. (2015). Contemporary, age-based trends in the incidence and management of patients with early-stage kidney cancer. Urologic Oncology, 33(1), 21.e19–21.e26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Znaor, A., Lortet-Tieulent, J., Laversanne, M., Jemal, A., & Bray, F. (2015). International variations and trends in renal cell carcinoma incidence and mortality. European Urology, 67(3), 519–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janelle Brennan
    • 1
    • 2
  • K. C. Chan
    • 3
  • Rebecca Kippen
    • 4
  • C. T. Lenard
    • 5
  • T. M. Mills
    • 5
  • Ruth F. G. Williams
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of UrologyBendigo HealthBendigoAustralia
  2. 2.St. Vincent’s Hospital MelbourneFitzroyAustralia
  3. 3.School of Management and EnterpriseUniversity of Southern QueenslandSpringfieldAustralia
  4. 4.School of Rural HealthMonash UniversityBendigoAustralia
  5. 5.Mathematics and StatisticsLa Trobe UniversityBendigoAustralia

Personalised recommendations