Advertisement

Before, During, and After the Early Acheulean at Melka Kunture (Upper Awash, Ethiopia): A Techno-economic Comparative Analysis

  • Rosalia Gallotti
  • Margherita Mussi
Chapter
Part of the Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology book series (VERT)

Abstract

The emergence of the Acheulean is a major topic, currently debated by archaeologists researching all over East Africa. Despite the ongoing discussion and the increasing amount of available data, the mode(s) of the technological changes leading to this emergence remain(s) largely unexplained. Overall, there is a dearth of continuous stratigraphic sequences recording both the late Oldowan and the early Acheulean at the same site. Accordingly, the technological changes cannot be evaluated taking into account the variability of each microregional context. Besides, the early Acheulean must be defined not only with respect to the Oldowan, but also in comparison with the following middle Acheulean.

At Melka Kunture, on the Ethiopian highlands, the rather continuous record allows a diachronic analysis from ~1.7 to ~0.85 Ma in a single microregion. In this paper we address the emergence and later developments of the Acheulean in the perspective of technical responses to the qualities/limits of raw materials (lithology, dimensions, geometry). A comparative techno-economic perspective makes it possible to investigate the nature of technological change(s) taking into account the role played by lithic resource availability and constraints in the same paleolandscape.

Our results demonstrate that in this area the main novelties leading to the early Acheulean were new concepts in small and large débitage, in addition to the manufacture of large tools. These innovations emerged at Melka Kunture over two hundred thousand years, during a continuous cultural process leading from the late Oldowan to the early Acheulean. On the opposite side, at the end of the Early Pleistocene, the innovations are not a small qualitative step, but rather a gaint leap. We underline the strong techno-economic discontinuity between the early Acheulean and the middle Acheulean.

There is also evidence that Homo ergaster /erectus produced both the Oldowan and the early Acheulean at Melka Kunture. Accordingly, the technological changes leading to the emergence of the Acheulean on the Ethiopian highlands are not explained by a newly developing hominin species. Conversely, the middle Acheulean develops while Homo heidelbergensis, a new and more encephalized type of hominin, appears on the scene.

Keywords

Ethiopian plateau Melka Kunture Early Pleistocene Oldowan Raw materials Techno-economic behaviors 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the Authority for Research & Conservation of the Cultural Heritage of Ethiopia’s Ministry of Culture & Tourism, the National Museum of Addis Ababa, and the Oromia Culture and Tourism Bureau for fieldwork permits and access to the lithic collections. The research was supported by grants from “La Sapienza” University of Rome (“Grandi scavi archeologici”) and from the Italian Foreign Ministry, awarded to MM. The study of the Garba IVD lithic artifacts was made possible by a Post-Ph.D research grant from the Wenner-Gren Foundation (number 7715 “Technical Behaviors During the Oldowan at Garba IVD, Melka Kunture, Ethiopia”) awarded to RG. We also wish to thank Guy Kieffer and Jean-Paul Raynal for lithological analysis of raw materials, Massimo Pennacchioni and Noemi Tomei for their drawings of artifacts, and Jean-Paul Raynal for the photos in Fig. 4.8e, f. We express deep thanks to the anonymous reviewers as well as to the VERT Series editors, who all helped us to improve this paper.

RG studied the lithic collections. MM, director of the Italian Archeological Mission at Melka Kunture and Balchit, coordinates research and designed and organized this project. RG wrote the paper and MM contributed to the draft.

References

  1. Abebe, T., Manetti, P., Bonini, M., Corti, G., Innocenti, F., & Mazzarini, F. (2005). Geological Map of the Northern Main Ethiopian Rift. Map and chart series MCH094, The Geological Society of America. USA: Inc. Boulder.Google Scholar
  2. Bardin, G., Raynal, J.-P., & Kieffer, G. (2004). Drainage patterns and regional morphostructure at Melka Kunture (Upper Awash, Ethiopia). In J. Chavaillon & M. Piperno (Eds.), Studies on the Early Paleolithic Site of Melka Kunture, Ethiopia (pp. 83–92). Florence: Origines.Google Scholar
  3. Barsky, D., Garcia, J., Martínez, K., Sala, R., Zaidner, Y., Carbonell, E., et al. (2014). Flake modification in European Early and Early-Middle Pleistocene stone tool assemblages. Quaternary International, 316, 140–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beyene, Y., Katoh, S., WoldeGabriel, G., Hart, W. K., Uto, K., Sudo, M., et al. (2013). The characteristics and chronology of the earliest Acheulean at Konso, Ethiopia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110, 1584–1591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boëda, E. (1993). Le débitage discoïde et le débitage Levallois récurrent centripète. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française, 90–96, 392–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bonnefille, R., Melis, R. T., & Mussi, M. (2018). Variability in the Mountain Environment at Melka Kunture Archaeological Site, Ethiopia, During the Early Pleistocene (~1.7 Ma) and the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (0.9–0.6 Ma). In R. Gallotti & M. Mussi (Eds.), The Emergence of the Acheulean in East Africa and Beyond. Contributions in Honor of Jean Chavaillon. Cham: Springer.Google Scholar
  7. Braun, D. R., Plummer, T., Ferraro, J. V., Ditchfield, P., & Bishop, L. C. (2009). Raw material quality and Oldowan hominin toolstone preferences: Evidence from Kanjera South, Kenya. Journal of Archeological Science, 36, 1605–1614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chernet, T., Hart, W. K., Aronson, J. L., & Walter, R. C. (1998). New age constraints on the timing of volcanism and tectonism in the northern Main Ethiopian Rift and the southern Afar transition zone (Ethiopia). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 80, 267–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chavaillon, J. (1980). Chronologie archéologique de Melka-Kunturé (Ethiopie). In R. E. F. Leakey & B. A. Ogot (Eds.), Proceedings VIII Panafrican Congress of Prehistory and Quaternary Studies, Nairobi 1977 (pp. 200–201). Nairobi: The International Louis Leakey Memorial Institute for African Prehistory.Google Scholar
  10. Chavaillon, J., & Chavaillon, N. (1980). Évolution de l’Acheuléen à Melka-Kunturé (Éthiopie). Anthropologie, XVIII(2/3), 153–159.Google Scholar
  11. Chavaillon, J., Chavaillon, N., Hours, F., & Piperno, M. (1979). From the Oldowan to the Middle Stone Age at Melka-Kunture (Ethiopia). Understanding cultural changes. Quaternaria, XXI, 1–26.Google Scholar
  12. Chavaillon, J., & Piperno, M. (1975). Garba IV, site paléolithique ancien de Melka-Kunturé (Éthiopie). Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française, 72, 134–138.Google Scholar
  13. Chavaillon, J., & Piperno, M. (2004). Studies on the Early Paleolithic site of Melka Kunture, Ethiopia. Florence: Origines.Google Scholar
  14. Condemi, S. (2004). The Garba IVE mandible. In J. Chavaillon & M. Piperno (Eds.), Studies on the Early Paleolithic site of Melka Kunture, Ethiopia (pp. 687–701). Florence: Origines.Google Scholar
  15. Cressier, P. (1980). Magnétostratigraphie du gisement pléistocène de Melka-Kunturé (Éthiopie). Datation des niveaux oldowayens et acheuléens. Ph.D. Dissertation, Université Louis Pasteur.Google Scholar
  16. D’Andrea, A., & Gallotti, R. (2004). GIS and intra-site spatial analysis. In J. Chavaillon & M. Piperno (Eds.), Studies on the Early Paleolithic site of Melka Kunture, Ethiopia (pp. 589–597). Florence: Origines.Google Scholar
  17. D’Andrea, A., Gallotti, R., & Piperno, M. (2000). Applicazione di un GIS intra-site al giacimento paleolitico di Garba IV (Melka Kunture, Etiopia). Archeologia e Calcolatori, 11, 319–338.Google Scholar
  18. D’Andrea, A., Gallotti, R., & Piperno, M. (2002). Taphonomic interpretation of the Developed Oldowan site of Garba IV (Melka Kunture, Ethiopia) through a GIS application. Antiquity, 76, 991–1001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Daniel, N., & Lapedes, D. N. (1978). McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Inc.Google Scholar
  20. de la Torre, I. (2004). Omo Revisited: Evaluating the Technological Skills of Pliocene Hominids. Current Anthropology, 45, 439–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. de la Torre, I. (2011). The Early Stone Age lithic assemblages of Gadeb (Ethiopia) and the developed Oldowan/early Acheulean in East Africa. Journal of Human Evolution, 60, 768–812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. de la Torre, I. (2016). The origins of the Acheulean: Past and present perspectives on a major transition in human evolution. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, 37, 20150245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. de la Torre, I., & Mora, R. (2005). Technological Strategies in the Lower Pleistocene at Olduvai Beds I & II. Liege: ERAUL.Google Scholar
  24. de la Torre, I., Mora, R., & Martínez-Moreno, J. (2008). The early Acheulean in Peninj (Lake Natron, Tanzania). Journal of Anthropological Archeology, 27, 244–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Defleur, A., & Crégut-Bonnoure, E. (1995). Le gisement paléolithique moyen de la grotte des Cèdres (Le Plan-d’Aups, Var). Paris: Documents d’Archéologie Française, 49, CNRS.Google Scholar
  26. Delagnes, A., & Roche, H. (2005). Late Pliocene knapping skills: The case of Lokalalei 2C, West Turkana, Kenya. Journal of Human Evolution, 48, 435–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Diez-Martín, F., Sánchez-Yustos, P., Uribelarrea, D., Baquedano, E., Mark, D. F., Mabulla, A., et al. (2015). The Origin of the Acheulean: The 1.7 Million-Year-Old Site of FLK West, Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania). Scientific Reports, 5, 17839.Google Scholar
  28. Di Vincenzo, F., Rodriguez, L., Carretero, J. M., Collina, C., Geraads, D., Piperno, M., et al. (2015). The massive fossil humerus from the Oldowan horizon of Gombore I, Melka Kunture (Ethiopia, >1.39 Ma). Quaternary Science Review, 122, 207–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Forestier, H. (1992). Approche technologique de quelques séries dites clactoniennes du nord-ouest de la France et du sud-est de l’Angleterre. Mémoire de Maîtrise, Université Paris X Nanterre.Google Scholar
  30. Forestier, H. (1993). Le Clactonien : mise en application d’une nouvelle méthode de débitage s’inscrivant dans la variabilité des systèmes de production lithique du paléolithique ancien. Paléo, 5, 53–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gallotti, R. (2013). An older origin for the Acheulean at Melka Kunture (Upper Awash, Ethiopia). Techno-economic behaviors at Garba IVD. Journal of Human Evolution, 65, 594–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gallotti, R. (2018). Before the Acheulean in East Africa: An Overview of the Oldowan Lithic Assemblages. In R. Gallotti & M. Mussi (Eds.), The Emergence of the Acheulean in East Africa and Beyond. Contributions in Honor of Jean Chavaillon. Cham: Springer.Google Scholar
  33. Gallotti, R., & Mussi, M. (2015). The Unknown Oldowan: ~1.7-Million-Year-Old Standardized Obsidian Small Tools from Garba IV, Melka Kunture, Ethiopia. PLoS ONE, 10, e0145101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gallotti, R., & Mussi, M. (2017). Two Acheuleans, two humankinds: From 1.5 to 0.85 Ma at Melka Kunture (Upper Awash, Ethiopian highlands). Journal of Anthropological Sciences, 95, 1–46.Google Scholar
  35. Gallotti, R., & Piperno, M. (2003). Recent activities of the Italian Archeological Mission at Melka Kunture: The Open Air Museum Project and the GIS application to the study of the Oldowan sites. In J. M. Moreno, R. M. Torcal, & I. de la Torre Sainz (Eds.), Oldowan: Rather more than smashing tools, First Hominid Technology Workshop (pp. 37–75). Bellaterra: Treballs d’Arqueologia, 9.Google Scholar
  36. Gallotti, R., & Piperno, M. (2004). The site of Garba IV. Spatial analysis of the lithic material from Level D. In J. Chavaillon & M. Piperno (Eds.), Studies on the Early Paleolithic site of Melka Kunture, Ethiopia (pp. 599–635). Florence: Origines.Google Scholar
  37. Gallotti, R., Collina, C., Raynal, J.-P., Kieffer, G., Geraads, D., & Piperno, M. (2010). The Early Middle Pleistocene Site of Gombore II (Melka Kunture, Upper Awash, Ethiopia) and the Issue of Acheulean Bifacial Shaping Strategies. African Archeological Review, 27, 291–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gallotti, R., Raynal, J.-P., Geraads, D., & Mussi, M. (2014). Garba XIII (Melka Kunture, Upper Awash, Ethiopia): A new Acheulean site of the late Lower Pleistocene. Quaternary International, 343, 17–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Geneste, J. M. (1989). Économie des ressources lithiques dans le Moustérien du sud ouest de la France. In M. Otte (Ed.), L’Homme de Néanderthal, La Subsistance vol. 6 (pp. 75–97). Liege: ERAUL.Google Scholar
  40. Geneste, J. M. (1991). Systèmes techniques de production lithique : variations technoéconomiques dans les processus de réalisation des outillages paléolithiques. Technique et Culture, 17(18), 1–35.Google Scholar
  41. Goren-Inbar, N., & Sharon, G. (2006). Invisible handaxes and visible Acheulan biface technology at Gesher Benot Ya’aqov, Israel. In N. Goren-Inbar & G. Sharon (Eds.). Axe Age. Acheulean Toolmaking from Quarry to Discard (pp. 111–135). London: Equinox.Google Scholar
  42. Harmand, S. (2009). Raw material and techno-economic behaviours at Oldowan and Acheulean sites in the West Turkana region, Kenya. In B. Adams & B. Blades (Eds.), Lithic Materials and Paleolithic Societies (pp. 3–14). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  43. Inizan, M. L., Reduron-Ballinger, M., Roche, H., & Tixier, J. (1999). Technology and Terminology of Knapped Stone (Préhistoire de la Pierre taillée 5). Nanterre: CREP.Google Scholar
  44. Jaubert, J., & Mourre, V. (1996). Coudoulous, le Rescundudou, Mauran : diversité des matières premières et variabilité des schemas de production d’éclats. In A. Bietti & S. Grimaldi (Eds.), Reduction Processes (chaînes opératoires) in the European Mousterian (pp. 313–341). Rome: Quaternaria Nova 6, Istituto Italiano di Paleontologia Humana.Google Scholar
  45. Kieffer, G., Raynal J.-P., & Bardin, G. (2002). Cadre structural et volcanologiques des sites du Paléolithique ancien de Melka Kunture (Awash, Ethiopie) : premiers résultats. In J.-P. Raynal, C. Albore-Livadie, & M. Piperno (Eds.), Hommes et Volcans. De l’éruption à l’objet (pp. 77–92). Les Dossiers de l’Archéo-Logis 2, Proceedings XIV UISPP Congress, Symposium 15.2, Liege, 2001.Google Scholar
  46. Kieffer, G., Raynal, J.-P., & Bardin, G. (2004). Volcanic markers in coarse alluvium at Melka Kunture (Upper Awash, Ethiopia). In J. Chavaillon & M. Piperno (Eds.), Studies on the Early Paleolithic site of Melka Kunture, Ethiopia (pp. 93–101). Florence: Origines.Google Scholar
  47. Kleindienst, M. R. (1962). Components of the East African Acheulian assemblages: An analytic approach. In G. Mortelmans & J. Nenquin (Eds.), Actes du IV° Congrès Panafricain de Préhistoire et d’Études du Quaternaire, Leopoldville, 1959 (pp. 81–108). Tervuren: Belgie Annalen, Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale.Google Scholar
  48. Leakey, M. D. (1971). Olduvai Gorge. Excavations in Bed I and II, 1960–1963 (Vol. 3). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Leakey, M. D. (1975). Cultural patterns in the Olduvai sequence. In K. W. Butzer & G. L. Isaac (Eds.), After the Australopithecines. Stratigraphy, Ecology, and Cultural Change in the Middle Pleistocene (pp. 477–493). Chicago: Mouton.Google Scholar
  50. Le Bourdonnec, F.-X. (2007). Aspects archéométriques de la circulation de l’obsidienne préhistorique. Développements analytiques et applications en Corse, Sardegne, Éthiopie. Ph.D. Dissertation, Université Michel de Montaigne Bordeaux 3, Pessac.Google Scholar
  51. Leroi-Gourhan, A. (1964). Le geste et la parole. Technique et langage. Paris: Albin Michel.Google Scholar
  52. Leroi-Gourhan, A. (1971). Évolution et Technique. L’Homme et la Matière. Paris: Albin Michel.Google Scholar
  53. Lepre, C. J., Roche, H., Kent, D. V., Harmand, S., Quinn, R. L., Brugal, J.-P., et al. (2011). An earlier origin for the Acheulian. Nature, 477, 82–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mohr, P. (1999). Le système des rifts Africains. Environnement géologique et géographique. In A. Gallay (Ed.), Comment l’Homme ? A la découverte des premiers hominidés d’Afrique de l’Est (pp. 231–288). Paris: Editions Errance.Google Scholar
  55. Moncel, M. H. (1998). Les niveaux moustériens de la grotte de Saint-Marcel (Ardèche). Fouilles René Gilles. Reconnaissance de niveaux à débitage discoïde dans la vallée du Rhône. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française, 95, 141–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Morgan, L. E., Renne, P. R., Kieffer, G., Piperno, M., Gallotti, R., & Raynal, J.-P. (2012). A chronological framework for a long and persistent archeological record: Melka Kunture, Ethiopia. Journal of Human Evolution, 62, 104–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mourre, V. (2003). Discoïde ou pas Discoïde ? Réflexions sur la pertinence des critères techniques définissant le débitage Discoïde. In M. Peresani (Ed.), Discoid Lithic Technology—Advances and implications (pp. 1–18). Oxford: BAR International Series 1120.Google Scholar
  58. Mussi, M., Altamura, F., Bonnefille, R., De Rita, D., & Melis, R. T. (2016). The environment of the Ethiopian highlands at the Mid Pleistocene Transition: Fauna, flora and hominins in the 850–700 ka sequence of Gombore II (Melka Kunture). Quaternary Science Review, 149, 259–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mussi, M., Altamura, F., Macchiarelli, R., Melis, R. T., & Spinapolice, E. E. (2014). Garba III (Melka Kunture, Ethiopia): A MSA site with archaic Homo sapiens remains revisited. Quaternary International, 343, 28–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Negash, A., Shackley, M. S., & Alene, M. (2006). Source provenance of obsidian artifacts from the Early Stone Age (ESA) site of Melka Kunture, Ethiopia. Journal of Archeological Science, 33, 1647–1650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pasty, J.-F. (2000). Le gisement paléolithique moyen des Meillers (Allier) : un exemple de la variabilité du débitage discoïde. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française, 97, 165–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Pelegrin, J. (1985). Réflexions sur le comportement technique. In M. Otte (Ed.), La signification culturelle des industries lithiques (pp. 72–91). Liege: Studia Praehistorica Belgica 4, BAR International Series 239.Google Scholar
  63. Peresani, M. (Ed.). (2003). Discoid Lithic Technology—Advances and implications. Oxford: BAR International Series 1120.Google Scholar
  64. Perlès, C. (1991). Économie des matières premières et économie du débitage : deux conceptions opposées ? In S. Beyries, L. Meignen, & P. J. Texier (Eds.), 25 ans d’études technologiques en Préhistoire : bilan et perspectives. Proceedings XIème rencontres internationales d’Archéologie et d’Histoire d’Antibes (pp. 35–46). Juan-les-Pins: APDCA.Google Scholar
  65. Piperno, M., & Bulgarelli, G. M. (2004). The site of Garba IV. Excavation 1973–1982. In J. Chavaillon & M. Piperno (Eds.), Studies on the Early Paleolithic site of Melka Kunture, Ethiopia (pp. 449–458). Florence: Origines.Google Scholar
  66. Piperno, M., & Bulgarelli-Piperno, G. M. (1975). First approach to the ecological and cultural significance of the early Palaeolithic occupation site of Garba IV at Melka-Kunture (Ethiopia). Quaternaria, XVIII, 347–382.Google Scholar
  67. Piperno, M., Bulgarelli, G. M., & Gallotti, R. (2004a). The site of Garba IV. The lithic industry of Level C. Typological and technological study. In J. Chavaillon & M. Piperno (Eds.), Studies on the Early Paleolithic site of Melka Kunture, Ethiopia (pp. 459–468). Florence: Origines.Google Scholar
  68. Piperno, M., Bulgarelli, G. M., & Gallotti, R. (2004b). The site of Garba IV. The lithic industry of Level D. Débitage and tools on flake. In J. Chavaillon & M. Piperno (Eds.), Studies on the Early Paleolithic site of Melka Kunture, Ethiopia (pp. 469–544). Florence: Origines.Google Scholar
  69. Piperno, M., Bulgarelli, G. M., & Gallotti, R. (2004c). The site of Garba IV. The lithic industry of Level D. Tools on pebble and percussion material. In J. Chavaillon & M. Piperno (Eds.), Studies on the Early Paleolithic site of Melka Kunture, Ethiopia (pp. 545–580). Florence: Origines.Google Scholar
  70. Piperno, M., Bulgarelli, G. M., & Gallotti, R. (2004d). The site of Garba IV. The test trenches A and B and the sounding in Level E. In J. Chavaillon & M. Piperno (Eds.), Studies on the Early Paleolithic site of Melka Kunture, Ethiopia (pp. 581–587). Florence: Origines.Google Scholar
  71. Piperno, M., Collina, C., Gallotti, R., Raynal, J.-P., Kieffer, G., Le Bourdonnec, F.-X., et al. (2009). Obsidian exploitation and utilization during the Oldowan at Melka Kunture (Ethiopia). In E. Hovers & D. R. Braun (Eds.), Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Oldowan (pp. 111–128). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Poupeau, G., Kieffer, G., Raynal, J. P., Milton, A., & Delerue, S. (2004). Trace element geochemistry in Balchit obsidian (Upper Awash, Ethiopia). In J. Chavaillon & M. Piperno (Eds.), Studies on the Early Paleolithic site of Melka Kunture, Ethiopia (pp. 103–110). Florence: Origines.Google Scholar
  73. Profico, A., Di Vincenzo, F., Gagliardi, L., Piperno, M., & Manzi, G. (2016). Filling the gap. Human cranial remains from Gombore II (Melka Kunture, Ethiopia; ca. 850 ka) and the origin of Homo heidelbergensis. Journal of Anthropological Sciences, 94, 1–24.Google Scholar
  74. Quade, J., Levin, N., Semaw, S., Stout, D., Renne, P., Rogers, M. J., et al. (2004). Paleoenvironments of the earliest stone toolmakers, Gona, Ethiopia. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 116, 1529–1544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Quade, J., Levin, N., Simpson, S., Butler, R., McIntosh, W., Semaw, S., et al. (2008). The Geology of Gona, Afar, Ethiopia. Geological Society of America Bulletin, Special Paper, 446, 1–31.Google Scholar
  76. Raynal, J.-P., & Kieffer, G. (2004). Lithology, dynamism and volcanic successions at Melka Kunture (Upper Awash, Ethiopia). In J. Chavaillon & M. Piperno (Eds.), Studies on the Early Paleolithic site of Melka Kunture, Ethiopia (pp. 111–135). Florence: Origines.Google Scholar
  77. Raynal, J.-P., Kieffer, G., & Bardin, G. (2004). Garba IV and the Melka Kunture Formation. A preliminary lithostratigraphic approach. In J. Chavaillon & M. Piperno (Eds.), Studies on the Early Paleolithic site of Melka Kunture, Ethiopia (pp. 136–166). Florence: Origines.Google Scholar
  78. Roche, H., & Texier, P.-J. (1991). La notion de complexité dans un ensemble lithique. Application aux séries acheuléennes d’Isenya (Kenya). In S. Beyries, L. Meignen, & P.-J. Texier (Eds.), 25 ans d’études technologiques en Préhistoire : bilan et perspectives. Proceedings XIème rencontres internationales d’Archéologie et d’Histoire d’Antibes (pp. 99–108). Juan-les-Pins: APDCA.Google Scholar
  79. Salvi, M. C., Salvini, R., Cartocci, A., Kozciak, S., Gallotti, R., & Piperno, M. (2011). Multitemporal analysis for preservation of obsidian sources from Melka Kunture (Ethiopia): Integration of fieldwork activities, digital aerial photogrammetry and multispectral stereo-IKONOS II analysis. Journal of Archeological Science, 38, 2017–2023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Schmitt, J.-J., Wempler, J.-M., Chavaillon, J., & Andrews, M. C. (1977). Initial K/Ar and paleomagnetic results of the Melka-Kunturé early-man sites, Ethiopia. In Proceedings VIII Panafrican Congress of Prehistory and Quaternary Studies, Nairobi.Google Scholar
  81. Semaw, S. (2006). The Oldest Stone Artifacts from Gona (2.6–2.5 Ma), Afar, Ethiopia: Implications for understanding the earliest stages of stone knapping. In N. Toth & K. Schick (Eds.), The Oldowan: Case Studies into the Earliest Stone Age (pp. 43–75). Gosport, Indiana: Stone Age Institute Press.Google Scholar
  82. Semaw, S., Rogers, M. J., Cáceres, I., Stout D., & Leiss, A. C. (2018). The Early Acheulean ~1.6–1.2 Ma from Gona, Ethiopia: Issues on the Emergence of the Acheulean in Africa. In R. Gallotti & M. Mussi (Eds.), The Emergence of the Acheulean in East Africa and Beyond. Contributions in Honor of Jean Chavaillon. Cham: Springer.Google Scholar
  83. Sharon, G. (2010). Large flake Acheulan. Quaternary International, 223–224, 226–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Tamrat, E., Thouveny, N., Taieb, M., & Brugal, J. P. (2014). Magnetostratigraphic study of the Melka Kunture archeological site (Ethiopia) and its chronological implications. Quaternary International, 343, 5–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Taieb, M. (1974). Evolution quaternaire du bassin de l’Awash. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Paris VI.Google Scholar
  86. Terradas, X. (2003). Discoid flaking method: Conception and technological variability. In M. Peresani (Ed.), Discoid Lithic Technology—Advances and implications (pp. 19–32). Oxford: BAR International Series 1120.Google Scholar
  87. Texier, P.-J. (2018). Technological Assets for the Emergence of the Acheulean? Reflections on the Kokiselei 4 Lithic Assemblage and Its Place in the Archaeological Context of West Turkana, Kenya. In M. Mussi & R. Gallotti (Eds.), The Emergence of the Acheulean in East Africa and Beyond. Contributions in Honor of Jean Chavaillon. Cham: Springer.Google Scholar
  88. Texier, P.-J., & Roche, H. (1995). The impact of predetermination on the development of some Acheulan chaînes opératoires. In J. M. Bermudez, J. L. Arsuaga, & E. Carbonell (Eds.), Human Evolution in Europe and the Atapuerca Evidence (pp. 403–420). Valladolid: Regional Junta de Castilla y León.Google Scholar
  89. Tixier, J. (1956). Le hachereau dans l’Acheuléen nord-africain. Notes typologiques. In Proceedings of the XV Session of the Congrès préhistorique de France, July 15–22, 1956, Poitiers-Angoulême (pp. 914–923).Google Scholar
  90. Westphal, M., Chavaillon, J., & Jaeger, J. J. (1979). Magnétostratigraphie des dépôts Pléistocènes de Melka-Kunturé (Éthiopie) : premières données. Bulletin de la Société Géologique Française, 7, 237–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Zaidner, Y. (2013). Adaptive flexibility of Oldowan hominins: Secondary use of flakes at Bizat Ruhama, Israel. PlosOne, 8, e66851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Zilberman, U., Smith, P., & Condemi, S. (2004a). Evidence for a genetic disorder affecting tooth formation in the Garba IV child. In J. Chavaillon & M. Piperno (Eds.), Studies on the Early Paleolithic site of Melka Kunture, Ethiopia (pp. 703–713). Florence: Origines.Google Scholar
  93. Zilberman, U., Smith, P., Piperno, N., & Condemi, S. (2004b). Evidence of amelogenesis imperfecta in an early African Homo erectus. Journal of Human Evolution, 46, 647–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di Scienze dell’AntichitàSapienza Università di RomaRomeItaly
  2. 2.Italian Archaeological Mission at Melka Kunture and BalchitRomeItaly
  3. 3.Université Bordeaux, UMR 5199, PACEA-PPPPessac CedexFrance

Personalised recommendations