Void Hole and Collision Avoidance in Geographic and Opportunistic Routing in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes on Data Engineering and Communications Technologies book series (LNDECT, volume 17)


Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) facilitate an extensive variety of aquatic applications such as military defense, monitoring aquatic environment, disaster prevention, etc. However UWSNs routing protocols face many challenges due to adverse underwater environment such as high propagation and transmission delays, high deployment cost, nodes movement, energy constraints, expensive manufacture, etc. Due to random deployment of nodes void holes may occur that results in the failure of forwarding data packet. In this research work we propose two schemes, Geographic and Opportunistic Routing using Backward Transmission (GEBTR) and Geographic and Opportunistic Routing using Collision Avoidance (GECAR) for UWSNs. In aforesaid scheme fall back recovery mechanism is used to find an alternative route to deliver the data when void occurs. In later, fall along with nomination of forwarder node which has minimum number of neighbor nodes is selected. Simulation results show that our techniques outperform compared with baseline solution in terms of packet delivery ratio by 5% in GEBTR and 45% in GECAR, fraction of void nodes by 8% and 11% in GECAR and energy consumption by 8% in GEBTR and 10% in GECAR.


Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks Geographic and opportunistic routing Void hole Backward Transmission Collision 


  1. 1.
    Javaid, N., Jafri, M.R., Ahmed, S., Jamil, M., Khan, Z.A., Qasim, U.: Delay-sensitive routing schemes for underwater acoustic sensor networks. Int. J. Distrib. Sens. Networks 11(3), 532–676 (2015)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Coutinho, R.W.L., Boukerche, A., Vieira, L.F.M., Loureiro, A.A.F.: Geographic and opportunistic routing for underwater sensor networks. IEEE Trans. Comput. 65(2), 548–561 (2016)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Noh, Y., Lee, U., Lee, S., Wang, P., Vieira, L.F.M., Cui, J., Gerla, M., Kim, K.: HydroCast: pressure routing for underwater sensor networks. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 65(1), 333–347 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Coutinho, R.W.L., Boukerche, A., Vieira, L.F.M., Loureiro, A.A.F.: GEDAR: geographic and opportunistic routing protocol with depth adjustment for mobile underwater sensor networks. In: 2014 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), pp. 251–256 (2014)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yan, H., Shi, Z.J., Cui, J.: DBR: depth-based routing for underwater sensor network. In: NETWORKING 2008 Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks, Wireless Networks, Next Generation Internet, pp. 72–86 (2008)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Javaid, N., Jafri, M.R., Khan, Z.A., Qasim, U., Alghamdi, T.A., Ali, M.: iAMCTD: improved adaptive mobility of courier nodes in threshold-optimized DBR protocol for underwater wireless sensor networks. Int. J. Distrib. Sens. Networks 10(11), 213-012 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Azam, I., Javaid, N., Ahmad, A., Abdul, W., Almogren, A., Alamri, A.: Balanced load distribution with energy hole avoidance in underwater WSNs. IEEE Access 5, 15206–15221 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kong, L., Ma, K., Qiao, B., Guo, X.: Adaptive relay chain routing with load balancing and high energy efficiency. IEEE Sens. J. 16, 1–10 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhou, Z., Yao, B., Xing, R., Shu, L., Bu, S.: E-CARP: an energy efficient routing protocol for UWSNs in the internet of underwater things. IEEE Sens. J. 16(11), 4072–4082 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yu, H., Yao, N., Wang, T., Li, G., Gao, Z., Tan, G.: Ad Hoc networks WDFAD-DBR: weighting depth and forwarding area division DBR routing protocol for UASNs. Ad Hoc Netw. 37, 256–282 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yu, H., Yao, N., Liu, J.: Ad Hoc networks an adaptive routing protocol in underwater sparse acoustic sensor networks. Ad Hoc Netw. 34, 121–143 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    So, J., Byun, H.: Load-balanced opportunistic routing for duty-cycled wireless sensor networks. IEEE Trans. Mob. Comput. 16(7), 1940–1955 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nguyen, K., Le, P., Huy, Q., Van Do, T.: An energy efficient and load balanced distributed routing scheme for wireless sensor networks with holes. J. Syst. Softw. 123, 92–105 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.COMSATS Institute of Information TechnologyIslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.International Islamic UniversityIslamabadPakistan
  3. 3.The University of LahoreIslamabadPakistan
  4. 4.CISHigher Colleges of TechnologyFujairahUAE

Personalised recommendations