Void Hole and Collision Avoidance in Geographic and Opportunistic Routing in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks
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Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) facilitate an extensive variety of aquatic applications such as military defense, monitoring aquatic environment, disaster prevention, etc. However UWSNs routing protocols face many challenges due to adverse underwater environment such as high propagation and transmission delays, high deployment cost, nodes movement, energy constraints, expensive manufacture, etc. Due to random deployment of nodes void holes may occur that results in the failure of forwarding data packet. In this research work we propose two schemes, Geographic and Opportunistic Routing using Backward Transmission (GEBTR) and Geographic and Opportunistic Routing using Collision Avoidance (GECAR) for UWSNs. In aforesaid scheme fall back recovery mechanism is used to find an alternative route to deliver the data when void occurs. In later, fall along with nomination of forwarder node which has minimum number of neighbor nodes is selected. Simulation results show that our techniques outperform compared with baseline solution in terms of packet delivery ratio by 5% in GEBTR and 45% in GECAR, fraction of void nodes by 8% and 11% in GECAR and energy consumption by 8% in GEBTR and 10% in GECAR.
KeywordsUnderwater Wireless Sensor Networks Geographic and opportunistic routing Void hole Backward Transmission Collision
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