The Maturity (1990s, 2000s)

  • Michele Laraia
Part of the Lecture Notes in Energy book series (LNEN, volume 66)


This chapter expands on the very concept of industrial maturity, first in general, then as applicable to nuclear decommissioning. It is assumed here that industrial maturity in decommissioning was reached when a number of large commercial facilities were fully decommissioned to the extent that their site could be released for unrestricted use- the very objective of decommissioning. The chapter also includes a section about the renewed international interest in reactors that had been shut down and dormant for many years with a minimum of surveillance and maintenance, and no decommissioning plans. Appendices to this chapter highlight the evolution of certain critical aspects, namely: the progressive nature of the decommissioning plans, with a special regard to design to facilitate decommissioning; the role of research reactors in the development of nuclear decommissioning; the development of Very Low Level Waste (VLLW) disposal sites as an aid to expediting decommissioning.


  1. Abramidze Sh P (2000) Decommissioning of the research nuclear reactor IRT-M and problems connected with radioactive waste. In: International conference on the safety of radioactive waste management. Cordoba Spain, 13–17 March 2000.
  2. Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) (2004) Replacement research reactor project, SAR chapter 19-decommissioning, 2004.
  3. Borwick A (2011) Lillyhall very low level waste project, 11 May 2011.
  4. Canadian Standards Association (CSA) (2014) Decommissioning of facilities containing nuclear substances, N294-09 (R2014)Google Scholar
  5. Capone M et al (2015) The dismantling of the Montecuccolino RB3 research reactor: radiological characterization of materials for free release. In: RRFM Conference Proceedings. Bucharest, Romania, pp 526–533, 19–23 April 2015.
  6. European Commission (EC) (2002) Environmental impact assessment for the decommissioning of nuclear installations. EUR 20051Google Scholar
  7. European Commission (EC) (2015) Technology readiness levels (TRL), Horizon 2020–work programme 2014–2015 general annexes, extract from part 19-commission decision C(2014)4995.
  8. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (2011) Research reactors in Africa, Vienna, 2011.
  9. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (1975) Decommissioning of nuclear facilities. In: Report of a technical committee meeting on the decommissioning of nuclear facilities organized by the international atomic energy agency and held in Vienna, 20–24 October 1975, IAEA-179, Vienna, 1975Google Scholar
  10. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (1990) The regulatory process for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, Safety Series No 105, Vienna 1990 (Superseded)Google Scholar
  11. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (2002) Record keeping for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities: guidelines and experience, Technical Reports Series No 411, Vienna, 2002Google Scholar
  12. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (2003) Decommissioning of small medical, industrial and research facilities, Technical Reports Series No 414, Vienna, 2003Google Scholar
  13. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (2006a) Decommissioning of underground structures, systems and components, Technical Reports Series No 439, Vienna, 2006Google Scholar
  14. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (2006b) Decommissioning of research reactors: evolution, state of the art, open issues, Technical Reports Series No 446, Vienna, 2006Google Scholar
  15. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (2008) Decommissioning of research reactors and other small facilities by making optimal use of available resources, Technical Reports Series No 463, Vienna, 2008Google Scholar
  16. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (2009) Classification of radioactive waste, General Safety Guide No GSG-1, Vienna, 2009Google Scholar
  17. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (2014) Decommissioning of facilities, General Safety Requirements, Safety Standards Series No GSR part 6, Vienna, 2014Google Scholar
  18. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (2016) Safety Glossary, 2016 (Edition)Google Scholar
  19. Koh B (1999) Right in your own backyard—onsite disposal of radioactive materials. Radwaste Magazine, 22–28 Sept–Oct 1999Google Scholar
  20. Lowenthal MD (1997) Radioactive-waste classification in the United States: history and current predicaments, UCRL-CR-128127, July 1997.
  21. Lynd L, Larson E (2003) Mature technology; Memo to RBAEF (The Role of Biomass in America’s Energy Future). Dartmouth College, 4 Dec 2003.
  22. Miyasaka Y, Tanaka M (1996) Completion of the Japan power demonstration reactor decommissioning program experience and waste management. In: Proceedings of 10th Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference, Kobe, 1996Google Scholar
  23. Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) (2014) Guide to technology readiness levels for the NDA estate and its supply chain, 6 Nov 2014,
  24. OECD Environment Directorate and International Energy Agency (OECD and IEA) (2003) Information paper, technology innovation, development and diffusion, COM/ENV/EPOC/IEA/SLT (2003)4.
  25. OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) (2010a) Applying decommissioning experience to the design and operation of new nuclear power plants, 2010.
  26. OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) (2010b) Decommissioning considerations for new nuclear power plants, 2010.
  27. The Mesothelioma Center (2017) The Mesothelioma Center, History of asbestos, 2017.
  28. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) (1979) Facilitation of decommissioning light water reactors, NUREG/CR 0569, Washington D.C., 1979Google Scholar
  29. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) (2012) Decommissioning planning during operations, Regulatory Guide 4.22, 2012Google Scholar
  30. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) (2017) 10 61.55 Waste classification, 2017.
  31. Vico E et al (2010) Very low level waste management in Spain and in France, 2010.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michele Laraia
    • 1
  1. 1.Independent ConsultantRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations