Take Stock of Progress and Look Ahead

  • Michele Laraia
Part of the Lecture Notes in Energy book series (LNEN, volume 66)


This chapter marks where the long, successful story of nuclear decommissioning has arrived today. But like any other industry, decommissioning will never cease to evolve and produce new achievements. Driving forces will be the development of parallel industries (e.g. electronics, robotics), new social expectations, political priorities, and cost constraints making a virtue of necessity. This chapter highlights a few technical and organizational areas that still present unsolved issues or exhibit room for improvement. The author considers that the section of this chapter named “the “cultural” side of decommissioning is perhaps the last frontier and the last hurdle to further progress in decommissioning: it has to do with the soft elements of human mindset, which are difficult to see, measure or correct.


  1. BBC (2015) How Sellafield’s radiation-proof robots do our dirty work. http://www.bbc.com/news/business-33849026
  2. BfE (2016) Federal Office for the Safety of Nuclear Waste Management (BfE). Interim storage facility north (near Lubmin). http://www.bfe.bund.de/EN/nwm/interim-storage/central/north/north.html. Available 20 Sept 2016
  3. Boston Globe (2017) Should the Pilgrim nuclear power station be required to pay an annual $25 million decommissioning fee? November 22, 2017 https://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/regionals/south/2017/11/22/should-pilgrim-nuclear-power-station-required-pay-annual-million-decommissioning-fee/9cWJdOuZw2xIb1Tla4KhwI/story.html
  4. DOE (2016) US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, International Program, Demonstration of UK snake arm robotic technology for calcine retrieval, Highlights of Fiscal year 2016 projects. https://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2017/05/f34/DemonstrationofUKSnakeArmRoboticTechnologyforCalcineRetrieval.pdf
  5. DOE (2017) US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Nuclear facility risk ranking. https://energy.gov/em/nuclear-facility-risk-ranking
  6. Exchange Monitor (2017) NRC looking to tweak rules for reactors in decommissioning. https://www.exchangemonitor.com/nrc-looking-tweak-rules-reactors-decommissioning/. 27 Nov 2017
  7. International Atomic Energy Agency (1975) Decommissioning of nuclear facilities, IAEA-TECDOC-179, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  8. International Atomic Energy Agency (2004) Application of the concepts of exclusion, exemption and clearance, Safety Standards Series, Safety Guide No RS-G-1.7, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  9. International Atomic Energy Agency (2005) Financial aspects of decommissioning, IAEA-TECDOC-1476, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  10. International Atomic Energy Agency (2006a) Decommissioning of underground structures, systems and components, Technical Reports Series No. 439, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  11. International Atomic Energy Agency (2006b) Redevelopment of facilities after decommissioning, Technical Reports Series No. 444, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  12. International Atomic Energy Agency (2008) Long term preservation of information for decommissioning projects, Technical Reports Series No 467, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  13. International Atomic Energy Agency (2009) Integrated approach to planning the remediation of sites undergoing decommissioning, Nuclear Energy Series No. NW-T-3.3, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  14. International Atomic Energy Agency (2013) Safety assessment for decommissioning, Safety Reports Series No 77, Annex II, Graded approach to safety assessment for decommissioning of facilities using radioactive material, Vienna. http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/SupplementaryMaterials/P1604-CD/Annex-II.pdf
  15. International Atomic Energy Agency (2014) Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources: international basic safety standards, jointly sponsored by EC, FAO, IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO, UNEP, WHO, General safety requirements part 3, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  16. International Atomic Energy Agency (2015) Security of nuclear information, Nuclear Security Series No. 23-G, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  17. Jarjies A et al (2013) Prioritization methodology for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities: a study case on the Iraq former nuclear complex. J Environ Radioact 119:70–78Google Scholar
  18. Kaulard J, Brendeback B (2012) Radiation protection during decommissioning of nuclear facilities—experiences and challenges. In: 13th International congress of the international radiation protection association, Glasgow, UK, 13–18 May 2012Google Scholar
  19. Kirschnick F, Engelhardt S (2004) Knowledge management for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants, IAEA-CN-123/03/O/01. https://www.iaea.org/km/cnkm/papers/kirschnickgermany.pdf
  20. Laraia M (2011) Segments of the general public as active stakeholders during nuclear decommissioning, Nuclear Decommissioning Report, Dec 2011–Jan 2012Google Scholar
  21. Laraia M (ed) (2017) Advances and innovations in nuclear decommissioning, Hardcover, Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge. ISBN: 9780081011225Google Scholar
  22. Latham, Watkins (2017) Client Alert-White Paper, Nuclear decommissioning and legal risk, No 2236. https://www.lexology.com/library/document.ashx?g=fcdf2e27–6e24-44a2-8685-e0af40578e1e. Nov 14 2017
  23. Moakes J (2016) Managing nuclear information across time, regarding the UK decommissioning strategy. http://atomsforthefuture.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/8/2015/11/AFF2016_Cycle3_J.MOAKES_NuclearRegulationGroup.pdf. 27 June 2016
  24. NEA (2009) OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency, Decommissioning of nuclear power facilities: it can and has been done, NEA, Paris. https://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2004/nea5728-decom.pdf
  25. NEA (2011) OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency, Remote handling techniques in decommissioning, NEA, Paris. http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/docs/2011/rwm-r2011-2.pdf
  26. Nuclear Technologies Best practical environmental option (BPEO)/ Best practicable means (BPM)/ Best Available Technique (BAT). https://www.tuv-sud.co.uk/uploads/images/1404987664220110211222/bpeo-bpm-bat-casestudy-final.pdf
  27. OECD (2000) OECD Nuclear energy agency, Nuclear education and training: cause for concern? Paris. https://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2000/nea2428-education.pdf
  28. Office For Nuclear Regulation (2014) Finding a balance (version 3)—guidance on the sensitivity of nuclear and related information and its disclosure, 2 April 2014. http://www.onr.org.uk/ocns/balance.pdf
  29. Schneider M (2009) Fast breeder reactors in France. Sci Glob Secur 17:36–53. https://www.princeton.edu/sgs/publications/sgs/archive/17-1-Schneider-FBR-France.pdf
  30. Shimbun A (2017) Nuke watchdog critical as robot failures mount at Fukushima plant, March 24, 2017 http://www.asahi.com/ajw/articles/AJ201703240064.html
  31. SSK (1998) Commission on radiological protection, clearance of materials, buildings and sites with negligible radioactivity from practices subject to reporting or authorization. http://www.ssk.de/SharedDocs/Beratungsergebnisse_PDF/1998/Freigabe_Materialien_e.pdf?__blob=publicationFile
  32. Thierfeldt S (2010) Application of the graded approach, workshop on safety assessment for decommissioning of research reactors, Risø, Denmark, 4–8 Oct 2010. http://www-ns.iaea.org/downloads/rw/projects/r2d2/workshop8/Presentations/graded-approach.pdf
  33. UK National Archives (2001) Anti-terrorism, crime and security act 2001. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2001/24/contents
  34. Vallance CA, Bramblet JW (2010) Diver and robotic approaches to decontamination and decommissioning, DD & R 2010, Idaho Falls, ID, 29 Aug–2 Sept 2010Google Scholar
  35. Webb EL (2014) Insurance coverage for decommissioning nuclear power plants, Nuclear Law Committee Newsletter of the American Bar Association, Section of Environment, Energy and Resources, vol 7, No.1Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michele Laraia
    • 1
  1. 1.Independent ConsultantRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations