Small Organic Molecules

  • Ovidiu D. Gordan
  • Dietrich R. T. Zahn
Part of the Springer Series in Surface Sciences book series (SSSUR, volume 52)


In order to improve devices based on organic thin films like organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic photo voltaic (OPV) cells, the molecular orientation has to be determined and optimized to increase the carrier mobility and the light emission and absorption within the layers. As many of the organic molecules possess an intrinsic molecular anisotropy, molecular ordering will induce optical and electrical anisotropy in the films. The optical anisotropy can be used to determine the average molecular orientation by modeling the anisotropic dielectric function using ellipsometric measurements. An overview of the procedure, valid for planar molecules, will be given in the first part of this chapter, with the main focus on the Phthalocyanine molecular class. The second part of the chapter focuses on vacuum ultra violet (VUV) ellipsometric measurements and the sensitivity gain at ultra-low coverages. Here the discussion will be restricted to optically isotropic films.


  1. 1.
    H. Arwin, D.E. Aspnes, Thin Solid Films 138, 195 (1986)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    N.B. McKeown, Phthalocyanine Materials (Cambrige University Press, Cambrige, 1998)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Fronk, B. Bräuer, J. Kortus, O.G. Schmidt, D.R.T. Zahn, G. Salvan, Phys. Rev. B 79, 235305 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    C.C. Leznoff, A.B.P. Lever, Phthalocyanines: Properties and Applications, vol. 4 (VCH, New York, 1996)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R.F. Ziolo, C.H. Griffiths, J. Chem. Soc. Dalton Trans. 11, 2300 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    A.V. Chadwick, P.B.M. Dunning, J.D. Wright, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 134, 137 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    H. Yonehara, C. Pac, Thin Solid Films 278(1–2), 108 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Z. Bao, Adv. Mater. 12, 227 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    D. Hohnholz, S. Steinbrecher, M. Hanack, J. Mol. Struct. 521, 231 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    M.K. Debe, D.R. Field, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 1265 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    A.B. Djurisic, C.Y. Kwong, T.W. Lau, W.L. Guo, E.H. Li, Z.T. Liu, H.S. Kwok, L.S.M. Lam, W.K. Chan, Opt. Commun. 205, 155 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Y. Wu, D. Gu, F. Gan, Opt. Mater. 24, 477 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    E.G. Bortchagovsky, Z.I. Kazantseva, I.A. Koshets, S. Nespurek, L. Jastrabik, Thin Solid Films 460, 269 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M.K. Debe, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 2816 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    M.I. Alonso, M. Garriga, J.O. Ossó, F. Schreiber, E. Barrena, H. Dosh, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 6335 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    G.E. Collins, V.S. Williams, L.-K. Chau, K.W. Nebesny, C. England, P.A. Lee, T. Lowe, Q. Fernando, N.R. Armstrong, Synth. Met. 54, 351 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    R.A. Collins, A. Krier, A.K. Abass, Thin Solid Films 229, 113 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    O.D. Gordan, M. Friedrich, D.R.T. Zahn, Thin Solid Films 455–456, 551 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    D.E. Aspnes, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1275 (1980)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    C.M. Herzinger, B. Johs, W.A. McGahan, J.A. Woollam, W. Paulson, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3323 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    U. Zhokhavets, R. Goldhahn, G. Gobsch, W. Schliefke, Synth. Met. 138, 491 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    J. Martensson, H. Arwin, Thin Solid Films 188, 181 (1990)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. Martensson, H. Arwin, Thin Solid Films 205, 252 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. Stendal, U. Beckers, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, C. von Borczyskowski, J. Phys. B At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 29, 2589 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    F. Seidel, O.D. Gordan, D.R.T. Zahn, Ellipsometry of CuPc Films Prepared under Different Vaccum Conditions (in preparation)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    O.D. Gordan, M. Friedrich, D.R.T. Zahn, Org. Electron. 5, 291 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    O. Gordan, M. Friedrich, W. Michaelis, R. Kröger, T. Kampen, D. Schlettwein, D.R.T. Zahn, J. Mater. Res. 19(7), 2008 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    C. Bungay, T.E. Tiwald, Thin Solid Films 455–456, 272 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    J. Sindu Louis, D. Lehmann, M. Friedrich, D.R.T. Zahn, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 013503 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    R. Scholz, M. Friedrich, G. Salvan, T.U. Kampen, D.R.T. Zahn, T. Frauenheim, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15, S2647 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    J.L. McInnes, E. Pidcock, V.S. Oganesyan, M.R. Cheesman, A.K. Powell, A.J. Thomson, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 9219 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    T.U. Kampen, A.M. Paraian, U. Rossow, S. Park, G. Salvan, Th. Wagner, M. Friedrich, D.R.T. Zahn, Phys. Stat. Sol. A 188, 1307 (2001)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    M.I. Alonso, M. Garriga, N. Karl, J.O. Oss, F. Schreiber, Org. Electron. 3, 23 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    M. Friedrich, Th. Wagner, G. Salvan, S. Park, T.U. Kampen, D.R.T. Zahn, Appl. Phys. A 75, 501 (2002)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    O.D. Gordan, T. Sakurai, M. Friedrich, K. Akimoto, D.R.T. Zahn, Org. Electron. 7, 521 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    S. Heutz, R. Cloots, T.S. Jones, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3938 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    S. Yim, S. Heutz, T.S. Jones, Phys. Rev. B 67, 165308 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    T. Sakurai, S. Kawai, J. Shibata, R. Fukasawa, K. Akimoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1982 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    T. Sakurai, R. Fukasawa, K. Akimoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 255 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    M.L. Swiggers, G. Xia, J.D. Slinker, A.A. Gorodetsky, G.G. Malliaras, R.L. Headrick, Brian T. Weslowski, R.N. Shashidhar, C.S. Dulcey, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1300 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    A. Hinderhofer, U. Heinemeyer, A. Gerlach, S. Kowarik, R.M.J. Jacobs, Y. Sakamoto, T. Suzuki, F. Schreiber, J. Chem. Phys. 127, 194705 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    D. Yokoyama, A. Sakaguchi, M. Suzuki, C. Adachi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 173302 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    D. Yokoyama, A. Sakaguchi, M. Suzuki, C. Adachi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 243303 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, A. Endo, C. Adachi, W. Brütting, Org. Electron. 12, 809 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    M. Aonuma, T. Oyamada, H. Sasabe, T. Miki, C. Adachi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 183503 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    D. Yokoyama, C. Adachi, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 123512 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    D.W. Berreman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 502 (1972)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    M. Schubert, Phys. Rev. B 53, 4265 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    H.G. Tompkins, E.A. Irene (eds.), Handbook of Ellipsometry (William Andrew/Springer, Berlin, 2005). (Chap. 9)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    D.J. De Smet, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2571 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    L.A.A. Pettersson, F. Carlsson, O. Inganas, H. Arwin, Thin Solid Films 313–314, 361 (1998)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    W.A. McGahan, B. Johs, J.A. Woollam, Thin Solid Films 234, 443 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    M. Campoy-Quiles, P.G. Etchegoin, D.D.C. Bradley, Synth. Met. 155, 279 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    D. Wynands, M. Erber, R. Rentenberger, M. Levichkova, K. Walzer, K.-J. Eichhorn, M. Stamm, Org. Electron. 13, 885 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    U. Heinemeyer, R. Scholz, L. Gisslén, M.I. Alonso, J.O. Ossó, M. Garriga, A. Hinderhofer, M. Kytka, S. Kowarik, A. Gerlach, F. Schreiber, Phys. Rev. B. 78, 085210 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    M.A. Heinrich, J. Pflaum, A.K. Tripathi, W. Frey, M.L. Steigerwald, T. Siegrist, J. Phys. Chem. 111, 18878 (2007)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    D.E. Aspnes, Spectroscopic ellipsometry of solids, in Optical Properties of Solids-New Developments, ed. by B. Seraphin (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1976). Chapter 15Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    R.M.A. Azzam, N.M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1992)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    U. Rossow, W. Richter, Optical characterization of epitaxial semiconductor layers, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (Springer, Berlin, 1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    B. Johs, J.A. Woollam, C.M. Herzinger, J. Hilfiker, R. Synowicky, C.L. Bungay, SPIE Crit. Rev. Opt. Sci. Technol. CR72, 29 (1999)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    D.E. McIntyre, D.E. Aspnes, Surf. Sci. 24, 417 (1971)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    A. Ritz, H. Lüth, Appl. Phys. A 31, 75 (1983)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    U. Rossow, U. Frotscher, W. Richter, D.R.T. Zahn, Surf. Sci. 287–288, 718 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    N. Esser, P.V. Santos, M. Kuball, M. Cardona, M. Arens, D. Pahlke, W. Richter, F. Stietz, J.A. Schaefer, B.O. Fimland, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 1666 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    P.V. Santos, N. Esser, J. Groenen, M. Cardona, W.G. Schmidt, F. Bechstedt, Phys. Rev. B 52, 17379 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    H. Proehl, T. Dienel, R. Nitsche, T. Fritz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 097403 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    U. Beckers, O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, U. Falke, C. von Borczyskowski, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 1721 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    D.K. Burge, H.E. Bennett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1428 (1964)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    U. Rossow, W. Richter, Spectroscopic ellipsometry, Optical Characterization of Epitaxial Semiconductor Layers (Springer, Berlin, 1996)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    O.D. Gordan, C. Himcinschi, D.R.T. Zahn, C. Cobet, N. Esser, W. Braun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141913 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    D.E. Aspnes, Thin Solid Films 455–456, 3 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    M. Nakamura, T. Matsunobe, H. Tokumoto, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 7860 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    T.U. Kampen, A.M. Paraian, U. Rossow, S. Park, G. Salvan, Th. Wagner, M. Friedriech, D.R.T. Zahn, Phys. Stat. Sol. A 188, 1307 (2001)Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    C. Goletti, G. Bussetti, P. Chiaradia, A. Sassella, A. Borghesi, Org. Electron. 5, 73 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    F. Seidel, L. Ding, O.D. Gordan, D.R.T. Zahn, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30, 012401–1 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Semiconductor PhysicsTechnische Universität ChemnitzChemnitzGermany

Personalised recommendations