Examining the Presenting Characteristics, Short-Term Effects, and Long-Term Outcomes Associated with System-Involved Youths

  • Melanie Taylor
  • Philip Mulvey
  • Kristan Russell
  • Brice Terpstra
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Psychology and Law book series (APL, volume 3)

Abstract

System-involved juveniles vary in their presenting problems and later life outcomes in comparison to nondelinquent juveniles. This chapter explores the initial disparities between delinquents and nondelinquents; short-term outcomes of those who were processed through the juvenile justice system; and later life outcomes of system-involved youths in adulthood. Consideration is given to the theoretical explanations of delinquent behaviors. Labeling theory, among the most notable explanations of delinquency, posits that contact with the juvenile justice system stigmatizes juveniles and results in continued criminality. The life course theory is then examined, as it explores pathways to deviancy and crime desistance, with a particular focus on the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Finally, emerging research on developmental science and maturation of adolescents is examined. The chapter then examines disparities between delinquents and nondelinquents in regard to mental health, substance abuse, and suicidal behaviors. Several long-term outcomes for delinquents are then explored, including dropping out of high school, the school-to-prison pipeline, educational (i.e., high school and college) outcomes, recidivism patterns for various types of delinquents, increased record exposure, limited employment opportunities, and decreased relationship prospects. This section concludes with an examination of long-term mental health outcomes of former delinquents, with a focus on the persistence of mental illness and increased likelihood of suicide following detention. The chapter concludes with several avenues for future research and policy implications.

Keywords

Juvenile justice Juvenile delinquency Developmental science Adolescent reentry Desistance 

References

  1. Abram, K. M., Choe, J. Y., Washburn, J. J., Teplin, L. A., King, D. C., & Dulcan, M. K. (2008). Suicidal ideation and behaviors among youths in juvenile detention. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(3), 291–300. https://doi.org/10.1097/CHI.0b013e318160b3ce CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abram, K. M., Teplin, L. A., Charles, D. R., Longworth, S. L., McClelland, G. M., & Dulcan, M. K. (2004). Posttraumatic stress disorder and trauma in youth in juvenile detention. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61(4), 403–410. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.61.4.403 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Abram, K. M., Teplin, L. A., McClelland, G. M., & Dulcan, M. K. (2003). Comorbid psychiatric disorders in youth in juvenile detention. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60(11), 1097–1108. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.60.11.1097 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Agnew, R. (1992). Foundation for a general strain theory of crime and delinquency. Criminology, 30, 47–87. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1992.tb01093.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Akers, R. (1998). Social learning and social structure: A general theory of crime and deviance. Boston: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Allgood, S., Mustard, D. B., & Warren Jr., R. S. (1999). The impact of youth criminal behavior on adult earnings. Working paper, University of Georgia.Google Scholar
  7. Altschuler, D. M., & Brash, R. (2004). Adolescent and teenage offenders confronting the challenges and opportunities of reentry. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 2(1), 72–87. https://doi.org/10.1177/1541204003260048 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ambrose, K., & Millikan, A. (2013). Beyond juvenile court: Long-term impact of a juvenile record. Washington Defender Association. Retrieved from http://www.defensenet.org/resources/publications-1/beyond-juvenile-court/Beyond%20Juvenile%20Court.pdf
  9. American Civil Liberties Union. (2014). Alone & afraid: Children held in solitary confinement and isolation in juvenile detention and correctional facilities. Retrieved from http://www.stopsolitaryforkids.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Alone-and-Afraid-COMPLETE-FINAL.pdf
  10. Apel, R., Blockland, A. J., Nieuwbeerta, P., & Van Schellen, M. (2009). The impact of imprisonment on marriage and divorce: A risk set matching approach. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 26, 269–300. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10940-009-9087-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Arya, N. (2007). Jailing juveniles: The dangers of incarcerating youth in adult jails in America. A campaign for youth justice report. Retrieved from http://www.campaignforyouthjustice.org/Downloads/NationalReportsArticles/CFYJ-Jailing_Juveniles_Report_2007-11-15.pdf
  12. Baert, S., & Verhofstadt, E. (2015). Labour market discrimination against former juvenile delinquents: Evidence from a field experiment. Applied Economics, 47, 1067–1072. https://doi.org/10.1080/00036846.2014.990620 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bartlett, J., & Domene, J. F. (2015). The vocational goals and career development of criminally involved youth: Experiences that help and hinder. Journal of Career Development, 42(3), 229–243. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894845314547269 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bazemore, G., & Umbriet, M. (1995). Rethinking the sanctioning function in juvenile court: Retributive or restorative responses to youth crime. Crime and Delinquency, 41, 296–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Becker, H. S. (1963). Outsiders: Studies in the sociology of deviance. New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
  16. Belfield, C. R., & Levin, H. M. (2009). High school dropouts and the economic losses from juvenile crime in California. California Dropout Research Project Report, 16, 1–55.Google Scholar
  17. Bernburg, J. D. (2009). Labeling theory. In M. D. Krohn, A. J. Lizotte, & G. Hall (Eds.), Handbook on crime and deviance. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  18. Bernburg, J. G., & Krohn, M. D. (2003). Labeling, life chances, and adult crime: The direct and indirect effects of official intervention in adolescence on crime in early adulthood. Criminology, 41(4), 1287–1318. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2003.tb01020.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Beyer, M. (2006). Fifty delinquents in juvenile and adult court. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76(2), 206–214. https://doi.org/10.1037/0002-9432.76.2.206 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bishop, D. M., & Frazier, C. E. (1996). Race effects in juvenile justice decision-making: Findings of a statewide analysis. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 86(2), 392–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bishop, D. M., Frazier, C. E., Lanza-Kaduce, L., & Winner, L. (1996). The transfer of juveniles to criminal court: Does it make a difference? Crime & Delinquency, 42(2), 171–191. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011128796042002001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bullis, M., & Yovanoff, P. (2006). Idle hands: Community employment experiences of formerly incarcerated youth. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 14(2), 71–85. https://doi.org/10.1177/10634266060140020401 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Calero, T. (2013). Open juvenile records in Washington state: Process, effects, and costs of protective mechanisms (Doctoral dissertation, University of Washington).Google Scholar
  24. Cauffman, E., & Steinberg, L. (2000). (Im) maturity of judgment in adolescence: Why adolescents may be less culpable than adults. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 18(6), 741–760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cherlin, A. J., Burton, L. M., Hurt, T. R., & Purvin, D. M. (2004). The influence of physical and sexual abuse on marriage and cohabitation. American Sociological Review, 69, 768–789. https://doi.org/10.1177/000312240406900602 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Copeland, W. E., Miller-Johnson, S., Keeler, G., Angold, A., & Costello, E. J. (2007). Childhood psychiatric disorders and young adult crime: A prospective, population-based study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 1668–1675. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.06122026 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Costello, E. J., Egger, H., & Angold, A. (2005). 10-year research update review: The epidemiology of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders: I. Methods and public health burden. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 44(10), 972–986. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000172552.41596.6f CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cottle, C. C., Lee, R. J., & Heilbrun, K. (2001). The prediction of criminal recidivism in juveniles: A meta-analysis. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 28(3), 367–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. De Li, S. (1999). Legal sanctions and youths’ status achievement: A longitudinal study. Justice Quarterly, 16(2), 377–401. https://doi.org/10.1080/07418829900094181 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dembo, R., Wareham, J., & Schmeidler, J. (2007). Drug use and delinquent behavior: A growth model of parallel processes among high-risk youths. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 34(5), 680–696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Desai, R. A., Goulet, J. L., Robbins, J., Chapman, J. F., Migdole, S. J., & Hoge, M. A. (2006). Mental health care in juvenile detention facilities: A review. The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 34(2), 204–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Elder, G. H. (1985). Perspectives on the life course. In G. H. Elder (Ed.), Life course dynamics (pp. 23–49). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Elder, G. H. (1998). The life course as developmental theory. Child Development, 69(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1998.tb06128.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Elkington, K. S., Teplin, L. A., Abram, K. M., Jakubowski, J. A., Dulcan, M. K., & Welty, L. J. (2015). Psychiatric disorders and violence: A study of delinquent youth after detention. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 54(4), 302–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Emanuel, K. (2013). Positive outcomes of delinquent youth: Who is doing well 5 years later? (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest LLC. (3508259).Google Scholar
  36. Fazel, S., Doll, H., & Långström, N. (2008). Mental disorders among adolescents in juvenile detention and correctional facilities: A systematic review and metaregression analysis of 25 surveys. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(9), 1010–1019. https://doi.org/10.1097/CHI.ObO13e31817eecf3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Feld, B. C. (1987). The juvenile court meets the principle of the offense: Legislative changes in juvenile waiver statutes. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 78(3), 471–533. https://doi.org/10.2307/1143567 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Garcia, A., Greeson, J., Kim, M., Thompson, A., & DeNard, C. (2015). From placement to prison revisited: Do mental health services disrupt the delinquency pipeline among Latino, African American and Caucasian youth in the child welfare system? Journal of Adolescence, 45, 263–273. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2015.10.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Gerhold, C. K., Browne, K. D., & Beckett, R. (2007). Predicting recidivism in adolescent sexual offenders. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 12(4), 427–438. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2006.10.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gilman, A. B., Hill, K. G., & Hawkins, J. D. (2015). When is a youth’s debt to society paid? Examining the long-term consequences of juvenile incarceration for adult functioning. Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology, 1(1), 33–47. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40865-015-0002-5 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Giordano, P. C., Cernkovich, S. A., & Holland, D. D. (2003). Changes in friendship relations over the life course: Implications for desistance from crime. Criminology, 41(2), 293–328. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2003.tb00989.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gover, A. R., & MacKenzie, D. L. (2003). Child maltreatment and adjustment to juvenile correctional institutions. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 30(3), 374–396. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854803030003006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Graham v. Florida, 560 U.S. 48 (2010).Google Scholar
  44. Graves, K. N., Frabutt, J. M., & Shelton, T. L. (2007). Factors associated with mental health and juvenile justice involvement among children with severe emotional disturbance. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 5(2), 147–167. https://doi.org/10.1177/1541204006292870 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gray, D., Achilles, J., Keller, T., Tate, D., Haggard, L., Rolfs, R., … McMahon, W. M. (2002). Utah youth suicide study, phase I: Government agency contact before death. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(4), 427–434. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200204000-00015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Grisso, T. (2004). Double jeopardy: Adolescent offenders with mental disorders. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  47. Grogger, J. (1995). The effect of arrests on the employment and earnings of young men. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 110(1), 51–71. https://doi.org/10.2307/2118510 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Harmon, M. A. (1993). Reducing the risk of drug involvement among early adolescents: An evaluation of drug abuse resistance education. Evaluation Review, 17(2), 221–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hayes, L. M. (2000). Suicide prevention in juvenile facilities. Juvenile Justice, 7(1), 2–10.Google Scholar
  50. Hayes, L. M. (2009). Juvenile suicide in confinement: A national survey. Collingdale, PA: Diane Publishing.Google Scholar
  51. Hirschfield, P. (2009). Another way out: The impact of juvenile arrests on high school dropout. Sociology of Education, 82(4), 368–393. https://doi.org/10.1177/003804070908200404 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  53. Hjalmarsson, R. (2008). Criminal justice involvement and high school completion. Journal of Urban Economics, 63(2), 613–630. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jue.2007.04.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hoeve, M., McReynolds, L. S., & Wasserman, G. A. (2013). The influence of adolescent psychiatric disorder on young adult recidivism. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 40(12), 1368–1382. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854813488106 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Illinois Juvenile Justice Commission. (2016). Burdened for life: The myth of record confidentiality and expungement in Illinois. Illinois Juvenile Justice Commission. Retrieved from http://www.law.northwestern.edu/legalclinic/cfjc/documents/Commission-Report-4-27-16-web.pdf
  56. J.D.B. v. North Carolina, 564 U.S. 261 (2011).Google Scholar
  57. Jensen, E. L., & Metsger, L. K. (1994). A test of the deterrent effect of legislative waiver on violent juvenile crime. Crime & Delinquency, 40(1), 96–104. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011128794040001007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Joseph, M. (2003). The effect of arrests on the earnings of young men: Evidence from the National Survey of youth. Chicago Policy Review, 7(1), 47–60.Google Scholar
  59. Jung, H. (2015). The long-term impact of incarceration during the teens and 20s on the wages and employment of men. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 54(5), 317–337. https://doi.org/10.1080/10509674.2015.1043480 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Juvenile Justice Geography, Policy, Practice & Statistics (2017). National Center for Juvenile Justice (NCJJ). Retrieved from http://www.jjgps.org/jurisdictional-boundaries#transfer-trends?&state=52
  61. Kempker, S. M., Schmidt, A. T., & Espinosa, E. M. (2016). Understanding the influence of mental health diagnosis and gender on placement decisions for justice-involved youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46, 1562–1581. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-016-0572-5 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Kim, C. Y. (2012). Policing school discipline. Brooklyn Law Review, 77, 861–903.Google Scholar
  63. King, D. C., Abram, K. M., Romero, E. G., Washburn, J. J., Welty, L. J., & Teplin, L. A. (2011). Childhood maltreatment and psychiatric disorders among detained youths. Psychiatric Services, 62(12), 1430–1438. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.004412010 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Kirk, D. S., & Sampson, R. J. (2013). Juvenile arrest and collateral educational damage in the transition to adulthood. Sociology of Education, 86(1), 36–62. https://doi.org/10.1177/0038040712448862 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Knitzer, J. (1982). Unclaimed children. Washington, D.C.: Children’s Defense Fund.Google Scholar
  66. Kroska, A., Lee, J. D., & Carr, N. T. (2017). Juvenile delinquency and self-sentiments: Exploring a labeling theory proposition. Social Science Quarterly, 98(1), 73–88. https://doi.org/10.1111/ssqu.12307 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Laub, J. H., & Lauritsen, J. L. (1993). Violent criminal behavior over the life course: A review of the longitudinal and comparative research. Violence and Victims, 8(3), 235–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Laub, J. H., Nagin, D. S., & Sampson, R. J. (1998). Trajectories of change in criminal offending: Good marriages and the desistance process. American Sociological Review, 63(2), 225–238. https://doi.org/10.2307/2657324 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Laub, J. H., & Sampson, R. J. (1993). Turning points in the life course: Why change matters to the study of crime. Criminology, 31(3), 301–325. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.17459125.1993.tb01132.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Laub, J. H., & Sampson, R. J. (2003). Shared beginnings, divergent lives: Delinquent boys to age 70. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Lee, J. S., Courtney, M. E., Harachi, T. W., & Tajima, E. A. (2015). Labeling and the effect of adolescent legal system involvement on adult outcomes for foster youth aging out of care. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 85(5), 441. https://doi.org/10.1037/ort0000090 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Leshem, R. (2016). Brain development, impulsivity, risky decision-making, and cognitive control: Integrating cognitive and socioemotional processes during adolescence. Developmental Neuropsychology, 41(1–2), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1080/87565641.2016.1187033 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Liberman, A. M., Kirk, D. S., & Kim, K. (2014). Labeling effects of first juvenile arrests: Secondary deviance and secondary sanctioning. Criminology, 52, 345–370. https://doi.org/10.1111/1745-9125.12039 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Liles, A., & Moak, S. C. (2015). Changing juvenile justice policy in response to the US Supreme Court: Implementing Miller v. Alabama. Youth Justice, 15(1), 76–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lilly, J., Cullen, F., & Ball, R. (2015). Criminological theory: Context and consequences (6th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  76. Liska, A. E., & Messner, S. F. (1999). Perspectives on crime and deviance (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  77. Litwok, D. (2014). Have you ever been convicted of a crime? The effects of juvenile expungement on crime, educational, and labor market outcomes (Doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing).Google Scholar
  78. Mack, J. (2012). Union formation and maturation of juvenile delinquents: A new look at development and desistance in early adulthood (Doctoral dissertation, Bowling Green State University).Google Scholar
  79. Mason, W. A., Zimmerman, L., & Evans, W. (1998). Sexual and physical abuse among incarcerated youth: Implications for sexual behavior, contraceptive use, and teenage pregnancy. Child Abuse & Neglect, 22(10), 987–995. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134(98)00080-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mauricio, A. M., Little, M., Chassin, L., Knight, G. P., Piquero, A. R., Losoya, S. H., & Vargas-Chanes, D. (2009). Juvenile offenders’ alcohol and marijuana trajectories: Risk and protective factor effects in the context of time in a supervised facility. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38(3), 440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. McClelland, G. M., Elkington, K. S., Teplin, L. A., & Abram, K. M. (2004). Multiple substance use disorders in juvenile detainees. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(10), 1215–1224. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000134489.58054.9c CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. McShane, M. D., & Williams, F. P. (1989). The prison adjustment of juvenile offenders. Crime & Delinquency, 35(2), 254–269. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011128789035002005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Miller, N., & McEwen, T. (1996). Prosecutor and criminal court use of juvenile court records: A national study. Institute of Law and Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice, 1–58.Google Scholar
  84. Miller v. Alabama, 567 U.S. 460 (2012).Google Scholar
  85. Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436 (1966).Google Scholar
  86. Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100(4), 674–701. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.100.4.674 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Moffitt, T. E., & Caspi, A. (2001). Childhood predictors differentiate life-course persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways among males and females. Development and Psychopathology, 13(2), 355–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Monohan, K. C., VenDerhei, S., Bechtold, J., & Cauffman, E. (2014). From the school yard to the squad car: School discipline, truancy, and arrest. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 43(7), 1110–1122. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-014-0103-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Mulvey, E., Steinberg, L., Fagan, J., Cauffman, E., Piquero, A., Chassin, L., … Losoya, S. (2004). Theory and research on desistance from antisocial activity among serious adolescent offenders. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 2(3), 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1177/1541204004265864 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Myers, D. L. (2003). The recidivism of violent youths in juvenile and adult court: A consideration of selection bias. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 1(1), 79–101. https://doi.org/10.1177/1541204002238365 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Myner, J., Santman, J., Cappelletty, G. G., & Perlmutter, B. F. (1998). Variables related to recidivism among juvenile offenders. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 42(1), 65–80. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X98421006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Nagin, D., & Waldfogel, J. (1995). The effects of criminality and conviction on the labor market status of young British offenders. International Review of Law & Economics, 15(1), 109–126. https://doi.org/10.1016/0144-8188(94)00004-E CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Natsuaki, M. N., Ge, X., & Wenk, E. (2008). Continuity and changes in the developmental trajectories of criminal career: Examining the roles of timing of first arrest and high school graduation. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(4), 431–444. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-006-9156-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Novins, D. K., Duclos, C. W., Martin, C., Jewett, C. S., & Manson, S. M. (1999). Utilization of alcohol, drug, and mental health treatment services among American Indian adolescent detainees. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(9), 1102–1108. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199909000-00013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Otto, R. K., Greenstein, J. J., Johnson, M. K., & Friedman, R. M. (1992). Prevalence of mental disorder among youth in the juvenile justice system. In J. J. Cocozza (Ed.), Responding to the mental health needs of youth in the juvenile justice system (pp. 7–48). Seattle: The National Coalition for the Mentally Ill in the Criminal Justice System.Google Scholar
  96. Pager, D. (2003). The mark of a criminal record. American Journal of Sociology, 108(5), 937–975. https://doi.org/10.1086/374403 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Parks, G. A., & Bard, D. E. (2006). Risk factors for adolescent sex offender recidivism: Evaluation of predictive factors and comparison of three groups based upon victim type. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 18(4), 319–342. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11194-006-9028-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Petteruti, A., & Walsh, N. (2008). Registering harm: How sex offense registries fail youth communities. Justice Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://www.justicepolicy.org/uploads/justicepolicy/documents/walsh_act.pdf
  99. Piquero, A. R., Daigle, L. E., Gibson, C., Piquero, N. L., & Tibbetts, S. G. (2007). Research note: Are life-course-persistent offenders at risk for adverse health outcomes? Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 44(2), 185–207. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022427806297739 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Pope, C. E., Lovell, R. D., & Hsia, H. M. (2002). Disproportionate minority confinement: A review of the research literature from 1989 through 2001. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.Google Scholar
  101. Puzzanchera, C., & Kang, W. (2014). Easy access to FBI arrest statistics 1994–2012. Retrieved from http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/ezaucr/
  102. Rabinovitch, S. M., Kerr, D. C., Leve, L. D., & Chamberlain, P. (2015). Suicidal behavior outcomes of childhood sexual abuse: Longitudinal study of adjudicated girls. Suicide and Life-threatening Behavior, 45(4), 431–447. https://doi.org/10.1111/sltb.12141 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Rainville, G., & Smith, S. (2003). Juvenile felony defendants in criminal courts: Survey of 40 counties, 1998. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Record Expungement Designed to Enhance Employment Act of 2014, H.R. 5158, 114th Cong. (2014).Google Scholar
  105. Redding, R., & Fuller, E. (2004). What do juvenile offenders know about being tried as adults? Implications for deterrence. Juvenile and Family Court Journal, 55(3), 35–44. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-6988.2004.tb00167.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Rohde, P., Seeley, J. R., & Mace, D. E. (1997). Correlates of suicidal behavior in a juvenile detention population. Suicide and Life-threatening Behavior, 27(2), 164–175. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1943-278X.1997.tb00288.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Roper v. Simmons, 543 U.S. 551 (2005).Google Scholar
  108. Ryan, E. P., & Otonichar, J. M. (2016). Juvenile sex offenders. Current Psychiatry Reports, 18(7), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-016-0706-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (1990). Crime and deviance over the life course: The salience of adult social bonds. American Sociological Review, 55(5), 609–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (1993). Structural variations in juvenile court processing: Inequality, the underclass, and social control. Law and Society Review, 27(2), 285–311. https://doi.org/10.2307/3053938 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (1997). A life-course theory of cumulative disadvantage and the stability of delinquency. Developmental Theories of Crime and Delinquency, 7, 133–161.Google Scholar
  112. Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (2003). Life-course desisters? Trajectories of crime among delinquent boys followed to age 70. Criminology, 41(3), 555–592. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2003.tb00997.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Schubert, C. A., Mulvey, E. P., Loughran, T. A., Fagan, J., Chassin, L. A., Piquero, A. R., … Cauffman, E. (2010). Predicting outcomes for youth transferred to adult court. Law and Human Behavior, 34(6), 460–475. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10979-009-9209-5 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Schubert, C. A., Mulvey, E. P., & Pitzer, L. (2016). Differentiating serious adolescent offenders who exit the justice system from those who do not. Criminology, 54(1), 56–85. https://doi.org/10.1111/1745-9125.12098 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Scott, E. S. (2000). Criminal responsibility in adolescence: Lessons from developmental psychology. In T. Grisso & R. Schwarz (Eds.), Youth on trial: A developmental perspective on juvenile justice (pp. 291–324). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  116. Shah, R. S., Fine, L., & Gullen, J. (2014). Juvenile records: A national review of state laws on confidentiality, sealing and expungement. Philadelphia, PA: Juvenile Law Center and Community Legal Services of Philadelphia. Retrieved from http://juvenilerecords.jlc.org/juvenilerecords/documents/publications/national-review.pdf
  117. Shannon, C. R. (2013). Juvenile incarceration and reentry: A photovoice study. El Paso, TX: LFB Scholarly Publishing LLC.Google Scholar
  118. Sharlein, J. (2016). Beyond recidivism investigating comparative educational and employment outcomes for adolescents in the juvenile and criminal justice systems. Crime & Delinquency, 1–27. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011128716678193.
  119. Shufelt, J. L., & Cocozza, J. J. (2006). Youth with mental health disorders in the juvenile justice system: Results from a multi-state prevalence study (pp. 1–6). Delmar, NY: National Center for Mental Health and Juvenile Justice.Google Scholar
  120. Sickmund, M., & Puzzanchera, C. (2014). Juvenile offenders and victims: 2014 national report. National Center for Juvenile Justice. Retrieved from https://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/nr2014/downloads/NR2014.pdf
  121. Sickmund, M., Sladky, A., & Kang, W. (2015). Easy access to juvenile court statistics: 1985–2013. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/ezajcs/
  122. Sickmund, M., Sladky, A., Kang, W., & Puzzanchera, C. (2015). Easy access to the census of juveniles in residential placement. Retrieved from http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/ezacjrp/
  123. Sickmund, M., Snyder, H. N., & Poe-Yamagata, E. (1997). Juvenile offenders and victims: 1997 update on violence. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Retrieved from https://www.ojjdp.gov/pubs/juvoff/contents.html
  124. Slocum, L. A. (2016). Crime and the life course. In T. S. Bynum & B. M. Huebner (Eds.), The handbook of measurement issues in criminology and criminal justice (pp. 496–534). Chichester, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  125. Spinney, E., Cohen, M., Feyerherm, W., Stephenson, R., Yeide, M., & Hopps, M. (2014). Case studies of nine jurisdictions that reduced disproportionate minority contact in their juvenile justice systems. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/grants/250301.pdf
  126. Steinberg, L. (2005). Cognitive and affective development in adolescence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9(2), 69–74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2004.12.005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Stokes, M. L., McCoy, K. P., Abram, K. M., Byck, G. R., & Teplin, L. A. (2015). Suicidal ideation and behavior in youth in the juvenile justice system: A review of the literature. Journal of Correctional Health Care, 21(3), 222–242. https://doi.org/10.1177/1078345815587001 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  128. Strayhorn, T. L., Johnson, R. M., & Barrett, B. A. (2013). Investigating the college adjustment and transition experiences of formerly incarcerated black male collegians at predominantly white institutions. Spectrum: A Journal on Black Men, 2(1), 73–98. https://doi.org/10.2979/spectrum.2.1.73 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Students with Criminal Convictions (2017). Federal student aid. Retrieved from https://studentaid.ed.gov/sa/eligibility/criminal-convictions
  130. Sukhodolsky, D. G., & Ruchkin, V. (2006). Evidence-based psychosocial treatments in the juvenile justice system. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 15(2), 501–516. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chc.2005.11.005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Sweeten, G. (2006). Who will graduate? Disruption of high school education by arrest and court involvement. Justice Quarterly, 23, 462–480. https://doi.org/10.1080/07418820600985313 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Tanner, J., Davies, S., & O’Grady, B. (1999). Whatever happened to yesterday’s rebels? Longitudinal effects of youth delinquency on education and employment. Social Problems, 46(2), 250–274. https://doi.org/10.1525/sp.1999.46.2.03x0188f CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Tarolla, S. M., Wagner, E. F., Rabinowitz, J., & Tubman, J. G. (2002). Understanding and treating juvenile offenders: A review of current knowledge and future directions. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 7(2), 125–143. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1359-1789(00)00041-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Taylor, M. (2015). Juvenile transfers to adult court: An examination of the long-term outcomes of transferred and non-transferred juveniles. Juvenile and Family Court Journal, 66, 29–47. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfcj.12050 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Taylor, M. T., & Spang, T. (2017). I’d prefer an applicant who doesn’t have a delinquent history: Delinquents in the labor market. Journal of Juvenile Justice, 6(1), 48–62.Google Scholar
  136. Teplin, L. A., Abram, K. M., McClelland, G. M., Dulcan, M. K., & Mericle, A. A. (2002). Psychiatric disorders in youth in juvenile detention. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59(12), 1133–1143. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.59.12.1133 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  137. Teplin, L. A., Jakubowski, J. A., Abram, K. M., Olson, N. D., Stokes, M. L., & Welty, L. J. (2014). Firearm homicide and other causes of death in delinquents: A 16-year prospective study. Pediatrics, 134(1), 63–73. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2013-3966 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  138. Teplin, L. A., Welty, L. J., Abram, K. M., Dulcan, M. K., & Washburn, J. J. (2012). Prevalence and persistence of psychiatric disorders in youth after detention: A prospective longitudinal study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69(10), 1031–1043. https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.2062 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  139. Teplin, L. A., Welty, L. J., Abram, K. M., Dulcan, M. K., Washburn, J. J., McCoy, K., & Stokes, M. L. (2015). Psychiatric disorders in youth after detention. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.Google Scholar
  140. Thomas, C. W., & Bishop, D. M. (1984). The impact of legal sanctions on delinquency: A longitudinal comparison of labeling and deterrence theories. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 75, 1222–1245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. United States Department of Justice. (2015). Uniform crime reporting: Crime in the United States. Retrieved from https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2015/crime-in-the-u.s.-2015
  142. Waite, D., Keller, A., McGarvey, E. L., Wieckowski, E., Pinkerton, R., & Brown, G. L. (2005). Juvenile sex offender re-arrest rates for sexual, violent nonsexual and property crimes: A 10-year follow-up. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 17(3), 313–331. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11194-005-5061-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Wald, J., & Losen, D. J. (2003). Defining and redirecting a school-to-prison pipeline. New Directions for Youth Development, 2003(99), 9–15. https://doi.org/10.1002/yd.51 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Wareham, J., & Dembo, R. (2007). A longitudinal study of psychological functioning among juvenile offenders: A latent growth model analysis. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 34(2), 259–273. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854806289828 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Warr, M. (1998). Life-course transitions and desistance from crime. Criminology, 36, 183–216. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1998.tb01246.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Washburn, J., Teplin, L., Voss, L., Simon, C., Abram, K., & McClelland, G. (2008). Psychiatric disorders among detained youths: A comparison of youths processed in juvenile court and adult criminal court. Psychiatric Services, 59(9), 965–973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Wasserman, G. A., Ko, S. J., & McReynolds, L. S. (2004). Assessing the mental health status of youth in juvenile justice settings. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention: Juvenile Justice Bulletin.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Wasserman, G. A., & McReynolds, L. S. (2006). Suicide risk at juvenile justice intake. Suicide and Life-threatening Behavior, 36(2), 239–249. https://doi.org/10.1521/suli.2006.36.2.239 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Wasserman, G. A., McReynolds, L. S., Ko, S. J., Katz, L., & Carpenter, J. R. (2005). Gender difference in psychiatric disorders at juvenile probation intake. American Journal of Public Health, 95(1), 131–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Wasserman, G. A., McReynolds, L. S., Lucas, C. P., Fisher, P., & Santos, L. (2002). The voice DISC-IV with incarcerated male youths: Prevalence of disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(3), 314–321. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200203000-00011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Welty, L. J., Harrison, A. J., Abram, K. M., Abram, K. M., Olson, N. D., Aaby, D. A., … Teplin, L. A. (2016). Health disparities in drug- and alcohol-use disorders: A 12-year longitudinal study of youths after detention. American Journal of Public Health, 106(5), 872–880.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Welty, L. J., Hershfield, J. A., Abram, K. M., Han, H., Byck, G. R., & Teplin, L. A. (2017). Trajectories of substance use disorder in youth after detention: A 12-year longitudinal study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 56(2), 140–148. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2016.10.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Western, B. (2002). The impact of incarceration on wage mobility and inequality. American Sociological Review, 67(4), 526–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. White, H. R., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M. B., & Farrington, D. P. (1999). Developmental associations between substance use and violence. Development and Psychopathology, 11, 785–803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. White, N. A., & Piquero, A. R. (2004). A preliminary empirical test of Silverthorn and Frick’s delayed-onset pathway in girls using an urban, African-American, U.S.-based sample. Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, 14, 291–309. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbm.595 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Whitehead, J. T., & Lab, S. P. (1989). A meta-analysis of juvenile correctional treatment. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 26(3), 276–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Wiesner, M., Kim, H. K., & Capaldi, D. M. (2010). History of juvenile arrests and vocational career outcomes for at-risk young men. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 47(1), 91–117. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022427809348906 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  158. Winner, L., Lanza-Kaduce, L., Bishop, D. M., & Frazier, C. E. (1997). The transfer of juveniles to criminal court: Reexamining recidivism over the long term. Crime & Delinquency, 43(4), 548–563. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011128797043004009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Worling, J., & Curwen, T. (2000). Adolescent sexual offender recidivism: Success of specialized treatment and implications for risk prediction. Child Abuse & Neglect, 24(7), 965–982. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134(00)00147-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Zimring, F. E., Piquero, A. R., & Jennings, W. G. (2007). Sexual delinquency in racine: Does early sex offending predict later sex offending in youth and young adulthood? Criminology & Public Policy, 6(3), 507–534. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9133.2007.00451.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Melanie Taylor
    • 1
  • Philip Mulvey
    • 2
  • Kristan Russell
    • 3
  • Brice Terpstra
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Criminal JusticeUniversity of Nevada, RenoRenoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Criminal Justice SciencesIllinois State UniversityNormalUSA
  3. 3.Interdisciplinary Social Psychology PhD ProgramUniversity of Nevada, RenoRenoUSA

Personalised recommendations