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Esophageal and Gastric Function

Chapter
Part of the Clinical Gastroenterology book series (CG)

Abstract

As elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract, the anatomy, morphology, and physiology of the esophagus and stomach are adapted and designed to subserve their respective functions. Thus, the esophagus transports the food bolus from the posterior pharynx to the stomach and at the same time protects the airway and minimizes gastroesophageal reflux. The stomach then relaxes to accommodate the meal and thereafter ensures the timely and coordinated delivery of the meal to the small intestine in a format that optimizes digestive activity there. These complex and highly integrated functions are based on the intrinsic electrophysiological properties of the esophagogastric musculature and the local regulatory and modulatory role of the enteric nervous system with input from the central nervous system via the autonomic nerves.

Keywords

Esophagus Stomach Lower esophageal sphincter Acid reflux Accommodation Gastric emptying Myenteric plexus Gut smooth muscle 

Abbreviations

CCK

Cholecystokinin

CNS

Central nervous system

GERD

Gastroesophageal reflux disease

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus

LES

Lower esophageal sphincter

MMC

Migrating motor complex

TLESR

Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation

UES

Upper esophageal sphincter

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lynda K. and David M. Underwood Center for Digestive Disorders, Division of Gastroenterology and HepatologyHouston Methodist HospitalHoustonUSA

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