Community Development, Stewardship Activities, and Volunteerism: The Evolution of Human “Connectedness” and Interdependency

  • August John Hoffman
  • Saul Alamilla
  • Belle Liang


In this chapter the role and impact of community service work, volunteerism, and stewardship activities is addressed in relation to how community members may perceive and experience a greater sense of “connectedness” with each other and to the community itself. Additionally, evidence is explored (i.e., Buss, Evolutionary Psychology: The New Science of the Mind, 2015) in addressing how cooperative and altruistic behaviors may have evolved to strengthen communities and improve resiliency among human development. Research addressing the viability of superordinate and interdependent goals (i.e., Sherif, Harvey, White, Hood, & Sherif, Intergroup Conflict and Cooperation: The Robber’s Cave Experiment, 1961) as effective processes in overcoming ethnic conflict and extremism is presented.


Interdependent community participation Community development Extremism Ethnocentrism Hate crimes Group violence Stewardship 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • August John Hoffman
    • 1
  • Saul Alamilla
    • 2
  • Belle Liang
    • 3
  1. 1.Metropolitan State UniversityHudsonUSA
  2. 2.Kennesaw State UniversityKennesawUSA
  3. 3.Boston CollegeChestnut HillUSA

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