Modifiable and Non-modifiable Risk Factors for Colon and Rectal Cancer
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the world’s third most common cancer. Before the twentieth century, CRC was relatively uncommon; however, the incidence has risen dramatically especially in the last 50 years. Several risk factors have been proposed, including the adoption of westernized diet, obesity, and physical inactivity. The majority of colorectal cancer continues to occur in industrialized countries. According to the recent studies, CRC is associated with several modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. These risk factors involve CRC history in first-degree relative, inflammatory bowel disease, consumption of red meat, fruit, and vegetables, cigarette smoking, body mass index to overall population, race, gender, personal habit of alcohol consumption and smoking, ethnicity diabetes, and physical activity. Here we review the key evidence for the role of different risk factors and their effect on CRC prevention and progression.
- 4.Hughes LAE, Simons CCJM, van den Brandt PA, van Engeland M, Weijenberg MP. Lifestyle, diet, and colorectal cancer risk according to (epi) genetic instability: current evidence and future directions of molecular pathological epidemiology. Curr Colorectal Cancer Rep. 2017;13(6):455–69.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 6.Powell JB, Ghotbaddini M. Cancer-promoting and inhibiting effects of dietary compounds: role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Biochem Pharmacol (Los Angel). 2014;3(1):24–8.Google Scholar
- 13.Asano T, McLeod RS. Dietary fibre for the prevention of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;2:CD003430.Google Scholar
- 16.Wang TP, Hsu SH, Feng HC, Huang RF. Folate deprivation enhances invasiveness of human colon cancer cells mediated by activation of sonic hedgehog signaling through promoter hypomethylation and cross action with transcription nuclear factor-kappa B pathway. Carcinogenesis. 2012;33(6):1158–68.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 25.Wang Z, Li S, Cao Y, Tian X, Zeng R, Liao DF, et al. Oxidative stress and carbonyl lesions in ulcerative colitis and associated colorectal cancer. Oxidative Med Cell Longev. 2016;2016:9875298.Google Scholar