Risk Factors for Cancer: Genetic and Environment

  • Mohammad Shafiur Rahman
  • Sithara Suresh
  • Mostafa I. Waly


The preventive measures of diseases are based on the risk and their severity. However, in reality, multiple risks are involved and cumulative risk factor is defined as the combination of threats from exposure to multiple agents or stressors. Cancer is a multifactorial disease caused by combined effects of both genetic and environmental factors. The environmental risk factors include non-genetic factors, such as diet, alcohol consumption, smoking, lifestyle, and infectious agents. The environmental factors include wide exposure of chemicals from environment, atmosphere, and foods. The genetic factors and their interrelationships with the environmental factors also play an important role. Consequently, it is important to understand both genetic and environmental risk factors properly to take actions towards the reduction of the overall risk. It is also important to be aware of the risk factors and initiate communications between different parties to combat cancer.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Shafiur Rahman
    • 1
  • Sithara Suresh
    • 1
  • Mostafa I. Waly
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Food Science and NutritionCollege of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos UniversityMuscatOman

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