The US-EC Relations, 1969–1974: Cooperation and Confrontation

  • Joseph M. Siracusa
  • Hang Thi Thuy Nguyen


Siracusa and Nguyen look into the erosion of trust between the United States and the European Community which was reflected mainly in their economic and political disputes. The authors succeed in blending history and analysis, resulting in an insightful, convincing narrative that the Americans and Western Europeans were tied by their own national interests and that their relations were marked by both cooperation and confrontation. Siracusa and Nguyen conclude that the U.S.-European Community relations during the Nixon presidential years had been in a downward course.


  1. Action Memorandum from the Assistant Secretary of State for Economic and Business Affairs (Armstrong) to the Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs (Casey), Washington, April 20, 1973.Google Scholar
  2. Action Memorandum from Helmut Sonnenfeldt and Robert Hormats of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger). Flanigan’s Report to President on U.S.-EC Relations. Accessed February 19, 2015.
  3. Bickerton, J.I. 2012. The Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Guide for the Perplexed. New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
  4. ———. 2015. The Struggle for Peace in the Middle East. Melbourne: Cengage.Google Scholar
  5. Bickerton, J.I., and L.C. Klausner. 2015. A History of the Arab Israeli Conflict. 7th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.Google Scholar
  6. Boyne, W.J. 2002. The Two O’clock War: The 1973 Yom Kippur Conflict and the Airlift That Saved Israel. New York: Thomas Dunne Books.Google Scholar
  7. Commission of European Communities. 1972. Commercial Relations between Japan, the United States and the European Community, Information Memo P-20/72. April. Accessed October 14, 2014.
  8. Commission of European Communities, Brussels. 1970. Review of Economic and Trade Relations between the United States and the Community. February. Accessed October 19, 2014.
  9. Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs. 1970. The Economic Situation in the Community. Accessed December 11, 2014.
  10. Common Market-U.S. Trade Relations, Brussels. August 1971. Accessed December 19, 2014.
  11. Dallek, R. 1973. The Dynamics of World Power: Western Europe. New York: Chelsea House.Google Scholar
  12. Devuyst, Y. 2007. American Attitudes on European Political Integration – The Nixon – Kissinger Legacy. IES Working Paper, Institute for European Studies, VUB, Belgium.Google Scholar
  13. Editorial Note, Foreign Relations of the United States (Hereafter Cited as FRUS), 1969–1976, Vol. III, Foreign Economic Policy, International Monetary Policy, 1969–1972, Document 2. Accessed January 19, 2015.
  14. European Community. 1969. U.S. Community Trade-Some Facts and Figures, No. 125. July. Accessed March 21, 2015.
  15. Featherstone, K., and R.H. Ginsberg. 1996. The United States and the European Union in 1990s: Partners in Transition. New York: St. Martin Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hahn, W.F. 1972. Nuclear Balance in Europe. Foreign Affairs, pp. 501–516.Google Scholar
  17. Haldeman, H.R. 1994. The Haldeman Diaries: Inside the Nixon White House. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons.Google Scholar
  18. Hanrieder, W.F. 1995. Deutschland, Europa, Amerika: Die Aussenpolitik der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1949–1994. Paderborn: Schöningh P. Hanson.Google Scholar
  19. Henry Kissinger 1968, Quoted in Str ömvik, M. 2005. Balancing Global Influence: The “Transatlantic Conflict Syndrome” and the CFSP. Accessed January 15, 2015.
  20. Hynes, C. 2009. The Year that Never Was: Heath, the Nixon Administration and the Year of Europe. Dublin: University College Dublin Press.Google Scholar
  21. Ilgen, T. 2006. Hard Power, Soft Power and the Future of the Atlantic Relations. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  22. Information Memorandum from the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon. Foreign Attitudes Toward U.S. Economic Policies. Accessed February 21, 2015.
  23. Information Memorandum from the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon, Initiation of Formal U.S. Consultations with the European Community. Accessed February 21, 2015.
  24. Kaiser, K. 1974. Europe and America: A Critical Phase. Foreign Affairs, No. 52, pp. 121–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kaplan, L. 1991. American Historians and the Atlantic Alliance. Kent: Kent State University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Kennedy, P. 1988. The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000. London: Vintage.Google Scholar
  27. Kissinger, H. 1979a. White House Years. Boston: Little Brown and Company Limited.Google Scholar
  28. ———. 1979b. White House Years. Boston: Little Brown and Company Limited.Google Scholar
  29. ———. 1982a. Years of Upheaval. Boston: Little Brown.Google Scholar
  30. ———. 1982b. The Troubled Partnership: A Re-appraisal of the Atlantic Alliance. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  31. Kissinger-Jacques Kosciusko-Morizet (Ambassador of France) Meeting, Memorandum of Conversation. The Middle East and the Year of Europe, December 3, 1973. Accessed December 14, 2014.
  32. Kissinger-Jacques Kosciusko-Morizet (Ambassador of France) Meeting, Memorandum of Conversation. The Middle East and the Year of Europe, December 3, 1973. Accessed December 25, 2014.
  33. Kissinger-Kosciusko-Morizet Meeting, March 22, 1974. Accessed January 21, 2015.
  34. Kissinger-Pompidou Meeting, Memorandum of Conversation, May 18, 1973. Accessed October 14, 2014.
  35. Kissinger-von Staden (FRG Ambassador) Meeting, October 26, 1973. Accessed December 27, 2014.
  36. Kosciusko-Morizet Call on Secretary. Accessed March 12, 2015.
  37. Larres, K. 2009. Assertive Supremacy and Enlightened Self-interest: The United States and the ‘Unity of Europe’. AICGS American Institute for Contemporary German Studies. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University.Google Scholar
  38. Lebow, R.N., and J.G. Stein. 1994. We All Lost the Cold War. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Lieber, R. 1967. Oil and the Middle East War: Europe in the Energy Crisis. Harvard: Centre for International Affairs.Google Scholar
  40. ———. 1979. European and America in the World Energy Crisis. International Affairs 54 (4): 531–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. ———. 1980. Energy, Economics and Security in Alliance Perspective. International Security 4 (4): 139–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Malve, P.S. 1969. The Future of the Common Agricultural Policy and the Relations between the United States and the European Community. Address by Mr. Pierre S. Malve, Representative for Trade Affairs, Liaison Office of the Commission of the European Community, Washington, DC, to the Agricultural Committee of the Chambers of Commerce of Minneapolis and St. Paul and the USDA Club of the Twin Cities. 24 November 1969. Accessed October 14, 2014.
  43. Memorandum from the Deputy Secretary of State (Irwin) to President Nixon, Fifth Round of U.S.-EC Consultations, Washington, October 7, 1972. Accessed December 15, 2014.
  44. Memorandum from the President’s Assistant for International Economic Affairs (Flanigan) to President Nixon, United States-European Community Relations, Washington, October 11, 1972. Accessed December 19, 2014.
  45. Memorandum from the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon. Next Steps in the Year of Europe, Washington, May 11, 1973. Accessed December 14, 2014.
  46. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, May 9, 1973, 2:30–3:15 p.m., Meeting on U.S.-Saudi Arabian Economic Relations. Accessed November 28, 2014.
  47. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, November 20, 1973, 5 p.m., Meeting with Oil Company Executives. Accessed November 30, 2014.
  48. Memorandum Prepared in the Office of Economic Research, Central Intelligence Agency, Washington, October 19, 1973. The Oil Weapon and Its Effects. Accessed November 24, 2014.
  49. Memorandum from the Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs (Casey) to Secretary of State Kissinger, Washington, November 3, 1973. Accessed November 24, 2014.
  50. Minutes of Washington Special Actions Group Meeting, Washington, October 15, 1973, 10:08–11:08 a.m. Middle East. Accessed November 24, 2014.
  51. National Intelligence Analytical Memorandum, Washington, May 11, 1973, International Petroleum Prospects. Accessed January 25, 2015.
  52. National Intelligence Estimate, Washington, December 5, 1973, The World Oil Crisis: Economic and Political Ramifications for Producers and Consumers. Accessed December 25, 2014.
  53. National Security Study Memorandum 183, Principles for a Declaration on Atlantic Relations, Washington, May 10, 1973. Accessed December 21, 2014.
  54. NATO and Détente, NATO Atlantic Treaty Organization.Google Scholar
  55. Nixon, R. 1973. Special Message to the Congress on Energy Policy. Accessed November 30, 2014.
  56. Palmer, J. 1988. Europe without America? The Crisis in Atlantic Relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Paper Prepared in the Department of State, International Economic Strategy for the 1970’s. Accessed December 11, 2014.
  58. Parker, R., ed. 2001. The October War: A Retrospective. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.Google Scholar
  59. Piccione, 1971U, Confrontation or Cooperation?, Bulletin of European Community, No. 150. Accessed April 1, 2015.
  60. Quandt, W.P. 1993. Peace Process: American Diplomacy and the Arab-Israeli Conflict Since 1967. Washington: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  61. Report on the Sixteenth Meeting of Members of Congress and the European Parliament on Congress and the European Parliament: Strengthening the Bonds. Committee on Foreign Affairs, Washington, DC, 1980.Google Scholar
  62. Schaetzel, J.R. 1975. The Unhinged Alliance: America and the European Community. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  63. Schulz, M., and T. Schawartz. 2009. The Strained Alliance: U.S. – European Relations from Nixon to Carter. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Secretary’s Staff Meeting, October 23, 1973, 4.35pm. Accessed March 2, 2015.
  65. Smith, M. 1978. From the ‘Year of Europe’ to a Year of Carter: Continuing Patterns and Problems in Euro-American Relations. Journal of Common Market Studies 27 (1): 26–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. ———. 1988. Western Europe and the United States: The Uncertain Alliance. London: George Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  67. ———. 1992. The Devil You Know: The United States and a Changing European Community. International Affairs 68 (1): 103–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Solana, J. 2003. The Future of Transatlantic Relations: Reinvention or Reform? Accessed March 12, 2015.
  69. Stebbins, R.B., and E.P. Adams, eds. 1976. Foreign American Relations, 1973: A Documentary Record. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  70. Stein, K. 1999. Heroic Diplomacy: Sadat, Kissinger, Carter, Begin, and the Quest for Arab-Israeli Peace. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  71. Summary of a Paper Prepared in the Bureau of European and Canadian Affairs and the Policy Planning Staff, Document 38. Accessed December 11, 2014.
  72. Sus, I. 1974. Western Europe and the October War. Journal of Palestine Studies 3 (2): 65–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Vanhaeverbeke, G. 1971. New Opportunities or Challenges in the European Communities. October 21. Accessed October 14, 2014.
  74. ———. 1972. Economic and Trade Relations between the United States and the Enlarging European Community. April 21. Accessed December 18, 2014.
  75. Weisbrode, K. 2009. The Atlantic Century Four Generations of Extraordinary Diplomats Who Forged America’s Vital Alliance with Europe. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph M. Siracusa
    • 1
  • Hang Thi Thuy Nguyen
    • 2
  1. 1.Royal Melbourne Institute of TechnologyMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Diplomatic Academy of VietnamHanoiVietnam

Personalised recommendations