The “Solution Process” (2013–2015)
This chapter demonstrates that a mutually hurting stalemate in the all-out war of 2012 compelled the two sides to initiate in March 2013 an epic solution process with the mediation of Öcalan. Although this open process involved several actors (e.g. the HDP), the AKP and PKK could not agree on a roadmap for peace. However, the process did not collapse since, as the chapter elucidates, the two parties utilised this ceasefire to advance their other agendas; rather, the process evolved unevenly and endured, thanks to two assertive personalities—Öcalan and Erdoğan. However, the tensions steadily escalated and the triumphs of the PKK’s offshoots in Syria and Turkey in 2015 alarmed the AKP dangerously; the twin bombings by ISIS in July 2015 offered this spark for a new war.