Conclusion: Tocqueville’s Penal Reform and Today’s Penal Problems
Ferkaluk concludes her work on Tocqueville’s penal reform by noting two important questions that remain and briefly reflecting on the implications that a study of On the Penitentiary System has for the present. First, Ferkaluk notes that the question of evaluating Tocqueville’s penal reform in relation to his work in the Algerian colonization project needs further study. A second important question that emerges from this work is how do the themes of On the Penitentiary System compare to Tocqueville’s larger works, especially Democracy in America, which followed so closely in publication? Finally, Ferkaluk argues that Tocqueville’s moderate penal reform enables readers to navigate the relationship between crime and social mores, address multiple causes of crime, and understand the proper objects of the contemporary penal system in a moderate way.
- Beaumont, Gustave de, and Alexis de Tocqueville. 1833. On the Penitentiary System in the United States and Its Application in France, with an Appendix on Penal Colonies and also Statistical Notes, trans. Francis Lieber. Philadelphia: Carey, Lea & Blanchard.Google Scholar
- Fleming, John. 2016. Gallup Analysis: Millennials, Marriage, and Family. Gallup News. http://www.gallup.com/poll/191462/gallup-analysis-millennials-marriage-family.aspx. Accessed 14 November 2017.
- Fry, Richard. 2017. It’s Becoming More Common for Young Adults to Live at Home—And for Longer Stretches. Pew Research Center. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/05/05/its-becoming-more-common-for-young-adults-to-live-at-home-and-for-longer-stretches/. Accessed 14 November 2017.
- Obama, Barack. 2015. Remarks by the President at the NAACP Conference. Philadelphia, PA: The White House Office of the Press Secretary. https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2015/07/14/remarks-president-naacp-conference. Accessed 14 November 2017.
- Pew Research Center. 2015. America’s Changing Religious Landscape. http://www.pewforum.org/2015/05/12/americas-changing-religious-landscape/. Accessed 14 November 2017.
- Tocqueville, Alexis de. 1984a. Œuvres Complètes: Écrits sur le système pénitentiaire en France et à l’étranger, Tome IV, Vol. 1, ed. Michelle Perrot. Paris: Gallimard.Google Scholar
- ———. 1984b. Œuvres Complètes: Écrits sur le système pénitentiaire en France et à l’étranger, Tome IV, Vol. 2, ed. Michelle Perrot. Paris: Gallimard.Google Scholar
- ———. 2000. Democracy in America, ed. and trans. Harvey Mansfield and Delba Winthrop. Chicago: University of Chicago.Google Scholar
- United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary. 2012. Reassessing Solitary Confinement: The Human Rights, Fiscal, and Public Safety Consequences. U.S. Government Printing Office. https://www.judiciary.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/CHRG-112shrg87630.pdf. Accessed 14 November 2017.
- Whitman, James Q. 2007. What Happened to Tocqueville’s America? Social Research 74 (2): 251–268.Google Scholar