Poorly Fertile Soils

  • Khan Towhid Osman


The capacity of soils to supply plant nutrients in available forms and proper balance, and in the absence of any toxicity, is known as soil fertility. All soils do not have enough capacity to provide plants with optimum nutrients required for their normal growth and development. Many soils are deficient in one or more nutrients. These soils are poorly fertile soils. Major causes of poor soil fertility include shallow depth, coarse texture, poor soil structure, high erosion, low organic matter, low activity clay, low CEC and base saturation, unfavorable chemical environment such as acidity, alkalinity, salinity, sodicity, pollution, etc. and P-fixation. Some soils are naturally poorly fertile and some soils are impoverished by soil mismanagement. Improvement and restoration of soil fertility for sustainable crop production in these soils need integrated soil and crop management efforts. The incorporation of organic residues along with chemical fertilizers, biochar amendment, green manuring, inclusion of a legume in the crop sequence, intercropping, crop rotation, cover crops, residue management and conservation tillage, liming an acidic soil, crop-livestock integration are needed in a concerted manner. No single method is enough for the management of poorly fertile soils.


Plant nutrients Soil fertility Nutrient depletion Fertilizers Organic fertilizers Manures Composting Industrial fertilizers Mixed fertilizers Liquid fertilizers Fertilizer application Fertilizer losses 


  1. Abera T, Feyissa D, Yusuf H (2005) Effects of inorganic and organic fertilizers on grain yield of maize-climbing bean intercropping and soil fertility in western Oromiya, Ethiopia. Conference on International Agricultural Research for Development, October 11–13, 2005 Stuttgart-HohenheimGoogle Scholar
  2. Addo-Quaye AA, Darkwa AA, Ocloo GK (2011) Yield and productivity of component crops in a maize-soybean intercropping system as affected by time of planting and spatial arrangement. J Agric Biol Sci 6(9):50–57Google Scholar
  3. Adeniyan ON, Akande SR, Balogun MO, Saka JO (2007) Evaluation of crop yield of African yam bean, maize and kenaf under intercropping systems. Am-Eurasian J Agric Environ Sci 2(1):99–102Google Scholar
  4. Africa Soil Health Consortium (2012) In: Fairhurst T (ed) Handbook for integrated soil fertility management. CAB International, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  5. Amara DG, Mourad SM (2013) Influence of organic manure on the vegetative growth and tuber production of potato (solanum tuberosum L. varspunta) in a Sahara desert region. Int J Agric Crop Sci 5(22):2724–2731Google Scholar
  6. Andrews SS (2006) Crop residue removal for biomass energy production: effects on soils and recommendations. White Paper, USDA-Natural Resource Conservation Service. /nrcs142p2_ 053255.pdf
  7. Anonymous (2010) India losing 5,334 million tonnes of soil annually due to erosion. The Hindu, 26 November 2010Google Scholar
  8. Beltran EM, Miralles de Imperial R, Porcel MA, Delgado MM, Beringola ML, Martin, Bigeriego M (2002) Effect of sewage sludge compost application on ammonium nitrogen and nitrate-nitrogen content of an Olive Grove soils. Proceedings: 12th International Soil Conservation Organization Conference. May 26–31, Beijing, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  9. Beltrano J, Ruscitti M, Arango MC, Ronco M (2013) Effects of arbuscular mycorrhiza inoculation on plant growth, biological and physiological parameters and mineral nutrition in pepper grown under different salinity and p levels. Journal of soil science and plant nutrition 13:123–141Google Scholar
  10. Binford GD (2010) Amounts of nutrients removed in corn grain at harvest in Delaware. 19th World Congress of Soil Science, 1–6 Aug 2010, Brisbane, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  11. Bing CAO, Fa-Yun H, Qiu-Ming X, Yin B, Gui-Xin CAI (2006) Denitrification Losses and N2O emissions from nitrogen fertilizer applied to a vegetable field. Pedosphere 16(3):390–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boller E, Hani F (2004) Manures and soil amendments. Ideal book on functional biodiversity at the Farm levelGoogle Scholar
  13. Bonelli PR, Rocca D, Cerrella PA, Cukierman AL (2010) Effect of pyrolysis temperature on composition, surface properties and thermal degradation rates of Brazil nut shells. Bioresour Technol 76:15–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bremer JM, Yeomans JC (1986) Effects of nitrification inhibitors on denitrification of nitrate in soil. Biol Fertil Soils 2(4):173Google Scholar
  15. Brunetti J (2005) Cobalt for soil and animal health. In: Wise traditions in food, farming and the healing arts. Wiston A Price Foundation, USAGoogle Scholar
  16. Camberato J, Brad J, Nielsen RL (2008) Nitrogen loss in wet and wetter fields. Corney News Network, Purdue University. URL:
  17. Cherr CM, Scholberg JMS, McSorley R (2006) Green manure approaches to crop production. Synth Agron J 98:302–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Conacher J, Conacher A (1998) Organic farming and the environment, with particular reference to Australia. Biological Agriculture. Horticulture 16:145–171Google Scholar
  19. Coyne MS, Thompson JA (2006) Math for soil scientists. Thomson Delmar Learning, Clifton Park, NYGoogle Scholar
  20. de Oliveira MW, Trivelin PCO, Boaretto AE, Muraoka T, Mortatti J (2002) Leaching of nitrogen, potassium, calcium and magnesium in a sandy soil cultivated with sugarcane. J Pesq Agropec Bras 37(6):861–868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dougill AJ, Twyman C, Thomas DS, Sporton D (2002) Soil degradation assessment in mixed farming systems of southern Africa: Use of nutrient balance studies for participatory degradation monitoring. Geogr J 168:195–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Drechsel P, Gyiele L, Kunze D, Cofie O (2001) Population density, soil nutrient depletion, and economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa. Ecol Econ 38:251–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Egbe OM (2010) Effects of plant density of intercropped soybean with tall sorghum on competitive ability of soybean and economic yield at Otobi, Benue State, Nigeria. J Cereals Oilseeds 1(1):1–10Google Scholar
  24. Eghball B (2001) Composting manure and other organic residue. Cooperative Extension Publication (NebGuide), Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, LincolnGoogle Scholar
  25. Elser JJ, Bracken ME, Cleland EE, Gruner DS, Harpole WS, Hillebrand H, Ngai JT Seabloom EW, Shurin JB, Smith JE (2007) Global analysis of nitrogen and phosphorus limitation of primary production in freshwater, marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Ecol Lett 10:1135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Eswaran H, Lal R, Reich PF (2002) Land degradation: an overview. In: Bridges EM, Hannam ID, Oldeman LR, de Vries FWT P, Scherr SJ, Sompatpanit S (eds) Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Land Degradation and Desertification. Oxford University Press, New Delhi, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  27. Ezeaku IE, Mbah BN, Baiyeri KP, Okechukwu EC (2015) Integrated crop-livestock farming system for sustainable agricultural production in Nigeria. Afr J Agric Res 10(47):4268–4274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. FAO (2001a) Lecture notes on the major soils of the world. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  29. FAO (2001b) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAOSTAT database. (
  30. FAO (2003) Assessment of soil nutrient balance: approaches and methodologies. FAO Fertilizer and Plant Nutrition Bulletin 14. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  31. FAO (2004) FAO Food Balance Sheets. FAOSTAT, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  32. FAO (2006) Fertilizer use by crop. FAO Fertilizer and Plant Nutrition Bulletin 17. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  33. FAO (2007) Tropical crop-livestock systems in conservation agriculture. The Brazilian Experience. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  34. Felix KN, Chris AS, Jayne M, Monicah M-M, Daniel M (2012) The potential of organic and inorganic nutrient sources in Sub- Saharan African crop farming systems. In: Whalen J (ed) Soil fertility improvement and integrated nutrient management – A global perspective. In Tech, Rijeka, pp 135–156Google Scholar
  35. Flavel TC, Murphy DV (2006) Carbon and nitrogen mineralization rates after application of organic amendments to soil. J Environ Qual 35:183–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gafur A, Borggaard OK, Jensen JR, Petersen L (2000) Changes in soil nutrient content under shifting cultivation in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh. Danish J Geogr 100:37–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Giani L, Chertov O, Gebhardt C, Kalinina O, Nadporozhskaya M, Tolkdorf-Lienemann E (2004) Plagganthrepts in northwest Russia. Genesis, properties and classification. Geoderma 121:113–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Glaser B, Lehmann J, Zech W (2002) Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal-a review. Biol Fertil Soils 35:219–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gupta V, Rai PK, Risam KS (2012) Integrated crop-livestock farming systems: a strategy for resource conservation and environmental sustainability. Indian Res J Ext Educ, Special Issue (Volume II): 49Google Scholar
  40. Hairiah K (2004) Introduction to part IV: Herbaceous legume fallows. In: Cairns M (ed) Voices from the forest: farmer solutions towards improved fallow husbandry in Southeast Asia. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MDGoogle Scholar
  41. Hardie MA, Oliver G, Clothier BE, Bound SA, Green SA, Dugald C, Close DC (2015) Effect of biochar on nutrient leaching in a young apple orchard. J Environ Qual 44(4):1273–1282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hartemink AE (2006) Assessing soil fertility decline in the tropics using soil chemical data. Adv Agron 89:179–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hassanpanah D, Jafar A (2012) Evaluation of ‘Out Salt’ anti-stress material effects on mini-tuber production of potato cultivars under in-vivo condition. J Food Agric Environ 10(1):256–259Google Scholar
  44. Heard J, Cavers C, Adrian G (2001) Up in smoke—nutrient loss with straw burning. Better Crops 90(3):10–11Google Scholar
  45. Herrera E (2000) Soil test interpretations. Guident A-122. Accessed 22 Dec 2011
  46. Horneck DA, Sullivan DM, Owen JS, Hart JM (2011) Soil test interpretation guide. Accessed on 3 Jan 2012
  47. International Fertilizer Development Corporation (IFDC) (2003) Input subsidies and agricultural development: issues and options for developing and transitional economies. IFDC Paper Series No. P-29. Muscles Shoals, AlabamaGoogle Scholar
  48. Izaurralde RC, Rosenberg NJ, Lal R (2001) Mitigation of climate change by soil carbon sequestration: Issues of science, monitoring and degraded lands. Adv Agron 70:1–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jacobsen J, Lorbeer S, Schaff B, Jones C (2002) Variation in soil fertility test results from selected Northern Great Plains laboratories. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 33(3 & 4):303–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jarenyama P, Hesterman OB, Waddington SR, Harwood RR (2000) Relay-intercropping of sunhemp and cowpea into a smallholder maize system in Zimbabwe. Agron J 92:239–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kambabe VH, Mkandawire R (2003) The effect of Pigeonpea Intercropping and Inorganic Fertilizer Management on Drought and Low Nitrogen Tolerant Maize Varieties in Malawi. In: Sakala WD. Kabambe VH (eds) Maize Agronomy Research Report, 2000–2004, pp. 7–13. Record Number 20083326997Google Scholar
  52. Kamo T, Hiradate S, Fujii Y (2003) First isolation of natural cyanamide as a possible allelochemical from hairy vetch Viciavillosa. J Chem Ecol 29:275–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kelly VA (2006) Factors affecting demand for fertilizer in Sub-Saharan Africa: agriculture and rural development discussion Paper 23. World Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  54. Lehmann J (2007) Nature a handful of carbon. Nature 447:143–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lehmann J, de Silva JP Jr, Steiner C, Nehls T, Zech W, Glaser B (2003) Nutrient availability and leaching in an archaeological Anthrosol and a Ferralsol of the Central Amazon basin: fertilizer, manure and charcoal amendments. Plant Soil 249:343–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lehmann J, Rondon M (2006) Bio Char soil management on highly weathered soils in the humid tropics. In: Uphoff N et al (eds) Biological approaches to sustainable soil systems. CRC Press, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  57. Lehmann J, Schroth G (2003) Nutrient Leaching. In: Schroth G, Sinlair FL (eds) Trees, crops and soil fertility. CAS International, Wallingford, UKGoogle Scholar
  58. Lewis WM, Wurtsbaugh WA, Paerl HW (2011) Rationale for control of anthropogenic nitrogen and phosphorus in inland waters. Environ Sci Technol 45:10030–10035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Li ZX, Dong ST, Wang KJ, Liu P, Zhang JW, Wang QC, Liu CX (2008) Soil nutrient leaching patterns in maize field under different fertilizations: an in situ study [in Chinese]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 19(1):65–70Google Scholar
  60. Liang B, Lehmann J, Solomon D, Kinyangi J, Grossman J, O’Neill B, Skjemstad JO, Thies J, FJ L˜o, Petersen J, Neves EG (2006) Black carbon increases cation exchange capacity in soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 70:1719–1730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lima HN, Schaefer CER, Mello JWV, Gilkes RJ, Ker JC (2002) Pedogenesis and pre-Colombian land use of Terra Preta Anthrosols (Indian black earth) of Western Amazonia. Geoderma 110:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Liu J, Xie Q, Shi Q, Li M (2008) Rice uptake and recovery of nitrogen with different methods of applying 15N-labeled chicken manure and ammonium sulfate. Plant Prod Sci 11:271–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lofkvist J, Whalley WR, Clark LJ (2005) A rapid screening method for good root-penetration ability: comparison of species with very different root morphology. Acta Agric Scand 55:120–124Google Scholar
  64. Major J, Steinerm C, Downiem A, Lehmann J (2009) Biochar effects on nutrient leaching. In: Lehmann J, Joseph S (eds) Biochar for environmental management: science and technology. Earthscan, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  65. Mapfumo P, Campbell BM, Mpepereki S, Mafongoya P (2001) Legumes in soil fertility management: the case of Pigeonpea in smallholder farming systems of Zimbabwe. Afr Crop Sci J 9(4):629–644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Marschner H (1995) Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  67. Mucheru-Muna M, Pypers P, Mugendi D, Kung’u J, Mugwe J, Merckx R, Vanlauwe B (2010) Staggered maize–legume intercrop arrangement robustly increases crop yields and economic returns in the highlands of Central Kenya. Field Crop Res 115:132–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Musa E, Sas-Paszt L, Guszek S, Ciesieska J (2015) Organic fertilizers to sustain soil fertility. In: Sinha S (ed) Fertilizer Technology I Synthesis, Chapter: 11. Studium Press LLC, USA, pp 255–278Google Scholar
  69. Nguyen TH, Brown RA, Ball WP (2004) An evaluation of thermal resistance as a measure of black carbon content in diesel soot, wood char, and sediment. Org Geochem 35:217–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Obadoni BO, Mensah JK, Emua SA (2010) Productivity of intercropping systems using Amaranthus cruentus L. and Abelmoschus esculentus (Moench) in Edo State, Nigeria. World Rural Observations 2010, 2(2).
  71. Okoth SA, Siameto E (2011) Evaluation of selected soil fertility management interventions for suppression of Fusarium spp. in a maize and beans intercrop. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems 13:73-80Google Scholar
  72. Ortega U, Dunabeitia M, Menendez S, Gonzalez-Murua C, Majada J (2004) Effectiveness of mycorrhizal inoculation in the nursery on growth and water relations of Pinus radiata in different water regimes. Tree Physiology 24(1):65–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Osman AN, Ræbild A, Christiansen JL, Bayala J (2011) Performance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum) Intercropped under Parkia biglobosa in an Agroforestry System in Burkina Faso. Afr J Agric Res 6(4):882–891Google Scholar
  74. Owens LB, Malone RW, Shipitalo MJ, Edwards WM, Bonta JV (2000) Lysimeter study of nitrate leaching from a corn-soybean rotation. J Environ Qual 29:467–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Pimentel D (2006) Soil erosion: A food and environmental threat. Environ Dev Sustain 8:119–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Pimentel D, Burgess M (2013) Soil erosion threatens food production. Agriculture 3:443–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Power JF, Wiese R, Flowerday D (2001) Managing farming systems for nitrate control: A research review from management systems evaluation areas. J Environ Qual 30:1866–1880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rochette P, Angers DA, Chantigny MH, MacDonald JD, Bissonnette N, Bertrand N (2009) Ammonia volatilization following surface application of urea to tilled and no-till soils: A laboratory comparison. Soil Tillage Res 103:310–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rondon MA, Lehmann J, Ramirez J, Hurtado M (2007) Biological nitrogen fixation by common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) increases with biochar additions. Biol Fertil Soils 43:699–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sanchez PE (2002) Soil Fertility and Hunger in Africa. Science 295:2019–2020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sanginga N, Dashiell K, Diels J, Vanlauwe B, Lyasse O, Carsky RJ, Tarawali S, Asafo-Adjei B, Menkir A, Schulz S, Singh BB, Chikoye D, Keatinge D, Rodomiro O (2003) Sustainable resource management coupled to resilient germplasm to provide new intensive cereal–grain legume–livestock systems in the dry savanna. Agric Ecosyst Environ 100:305–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sanginga N, Woomer PL (2009) Integrated soil fertility management in Africa: Principles, Practices and Development Process. Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility Institute of the International Centre for Tropical Agriculture, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  83. Schick J, Bertol I, Balbinot AA Jr, Batistela O (2000) Erosãohídricaem Cambissolo Húmicoalumínicosubmetido a diferentessistemas de preparo e cultivo do solo: II. perdas de nutrientes e carbonoorgânico. Rev Bras Ciênc Solo 24:437–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Smil V (2002) Nitrogen and food production: proteins for human diets. Ambio 31:126–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Soderberg C (2013) Effects of biochar amendment in soils from Kisumu, Kenya. Graduate Project, Department of Soil and Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural SciencesGoogle Scholar
  86. Sombroek W, Ruivo ML, Fearnside PM, Glaser B, Lehmann J (2003) Amazonian dark earths as carbon stores and sinks. In: Lehmann J et al (eds) Amazonian Dark Earths: Origins, Properties, Management. Kluwer Acad Publ, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  87. Steiner C, Teixeria WG, Lehmann J, Nehls T, deMaceˆdo JLV, Blum WEH, Zech W (2007) Long term effects of manure, charcoal, and mineral fertilization on crop production and fertility on a highly weathered central Amazonian upland soil. Plant Soil 291:275–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Styger E, Fernandes CM (2006) Contributions of Managed Fallows to Soil Fertility Recovery. In: Uphoff N, Ball AS, Fernandes E, Harren H, Husson O, Laing M, Palm C, Pretty J, Sanchez P, Sanginga N, Thies J (eds) Biological Approaches to Sustainable Soil Systems (Books in Soils, Plants, and the Environment). CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  89. Sukristiyonubowo, Watung RL, Vadari T, Agus F (2002) Nutrient loss and the on-site cost of soil erosion under different land use systems. Paper presented at the T" MSEC Annual Assembly. 2–7 Dec 2002. Vientiane, Lao PDRGoogle Scholar
  90. Sullivan P (2003) Intercropping principles and pro-duction practices. Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Areas Publication.
  91. Tabo R, Bationo A, Gerard B, Ndjeunga J, Marchal D, Amadou B, Annou G, Sogodogo D, Taonda JBS, Hassane O, Maimouna KD, Koala S (2007) Improving cereal productivity and farmers’ income using a strategic application of fertilizers in West Africa. In: Bationo A, Waswa B, Kihara J, Kimetu J (eds) Advances in integrated soil fertility management in sub-Saharan Africa: challenges and opportunities. Kluwer Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp 201–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Tahiri S, Guardia MDL (2009) Treatment and valorization of leather industry solid wastes: A review. J Am Leather Chem Assoc 104:52–67Google Scholar
  93. Tan ZX, Lal R, Wiebe KD (2005) Global soil nutrient depletion and yield reduction. J Sustain Agric 26(1):123–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Toomsan B, Cadisch G, Srichantawong M, Thongsodsaeng C, Giller KE, Limpinuntana A (2000) Biological N2-fixation and residual N benefit of pre-rice leguminous crops and green manures. Neth J Agric Sci 48:19–29Google Scholar
  95. Toor GS, Condron LM, Cade-Menun BJ, Di HJ, Cameron KC (2005) Preferential phosphorus leaching from an irrigated grassland soil. Eur J Soil Sci 56(2):155–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Usman M, Madu VU, Alkali G (2015) The combined use of organic and inorganic fertilizers for improving maize crop productivity in Nigeria. Int J Sci Res Pub 8(10):1–7Google Scholar
  97. Van Keulen H, Schiere H (2004) Crop-livestock systems: old wine in new bottles? In New directions for a diverse planet. Proceedings of the 4th International Crop Science Congress, 26 September-October 2004, Brisbane, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  98. Vanlauwe B, Descheemaeker K, Giller KE, Huising J, Merckx R, Nziguheba G, Wendt J, Zingore S (2015) Integrated soil fertility management in sub-Saharan Africa: unravelling local adaptation. Soil 1:491–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Vanlauwe B, Bationo A, Chianu J, Giller KE, Merckx R, Mokwunye U, Ohiokpehai O, Pypers P, Tabo R, Shepherd K, Smaling EMA, Woomer PL (2010) Integrated soil fertility management: operational definition and consequences for implementation and dissemination. Outlook Agric 39:17–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Velu V, Ramanathan KM (2001) Nitrogen balance in wetland rice ecosystem as influenced by soil type. J Madras Agril 87:21–25Google Scholar
  101. Waddington SR, Karigwindi J (2001) Productivity and profitability of maize + groundnut rotations compared with continuous maize on smallholder farms in Zimbabwe. Exp Agric 37:83–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Waddington SR, Mekuria M, Siziba S, Karigwindi J (2007) Long-term yield sustainability and financial returns from grain legume-maize intercrops on a sandy soil in subhumid North Central Zimbabwe. Exp Agric 43:489–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Warnock DD, Lehmann J, Kuyper TW, Rillig MC (2007) Mycorrhizal responses to biochar in soil—concepts and mechanisms. Plant Soil 300:9–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Webb T, Hewitt A, Lilburne L, McLeod M (2010) Mapping of vulnerability of nitrate and phosphorus leaching, microbial bypass flow, and soil runoff potential for two areas of Canterbury. Report R10/125. Environment Canterbury Regional Council, KauniheraTaiao Ki Waitaha, 58 Kilmore Street PO Box 345 Christchurch 8140Google Scholar
  105. Westover HL (1926) Farm manures. USGA Green Section 6(9):193–196Google Scholar
  106. Widowati A, Utomo WH (2014) The use of biochar to reduce nitrogen and potassium leaching from soil cultivated with maize. J Degrad Min Lands Manag 2(1):211–218Google Scholar
  107. Wild A (1996) Soils and the environment. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  108. Yao Y, Gao B, Zhang M, Inyang M, Andrew R, Zimmerman AR (2012) Effect of biochar amendment on sorption and leaching of nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate in a sandy soil. Chemosphere 89:1467–1471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Yoo G, Kim H, Chen J, Kim Y (2013) Effects of biochar addition on nitrogen leaching and soil structure following fertilizer application to rice paddy soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 78(3):852–860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Zhao SL, Gupta SC, Huggins DR, Moncrief JF (2001) Tillage and nutrient source effects on surface and subsurface water quality at corn planting. J Environ Qual 30:998–1008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Zhu Q, Peng X, Huang T (2015) Contrasted effects of biochar on maize growth and N use efficiency dependingon soil conditions. Int Agrophys 29:257–266Google Scholar
  112. Zingore S, Delve RJ, Nyamangara J, Giller KE (2008) Multiple benefits of manure: the key to maintenance of soil fertility and restoration of depleted sandy soils on African smallholder farms. Nut Cycl Agroecosyst 80:267–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Khan Towhid Osman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Soil ScienceUniversity of ChittagongChittagongBangladesh

Personalised recommendations