Peat Soils

  • Khan Towhid Osman


Peat soils are the most dominant type of organic soils developed through centuries under wetland conditions by the accumulation of partially decomposed and undecomposed plant residues. The other type of organic soil is muck which also develops by the accumulation of organic soil materials, but in this type, materials are relatively well decomposed, and the sources of materials are not identifiable. Saturation or submergence of the substratratum and the complete absence of free oxygen cause very slow anaerobic decomposition of organic matter so that deep organic soils or Histosols can evolve. However, a vast expanse of peat soil is called a peatland. More than half of the global wetlands are composed of peatlands; they cover 3 percent of the land and freshwater surface of the earth. Peat soils develop in several wetland types, including mires (bogs, fens), swamps, marshes, and pocosins. Peat soils occur in all regions, but they are more widespread in the temperate and cold zones of the Northern Hemisphere. There are 12.2 M ha (million hectare) peatlands in Africa, 23.5 M ha in Asia and the Far East, 7.4 M ha in Latin America, 4.1 M ha in Australia, 117.8 M ha in North America and 75.0 M ha in Europe. Peatland vegetation includes Sphagnum mosses, rushes and sedges, bog cotton, ling heather, bog rosemary, bog asphodel and sundew. There are also forested peatlands in Europe (Alder forests) and in lowland humid tropical areas of Southeast Asia (fresh water swamp forests and mangroves). Peat soils are characterized by high water table, absence of oxygen, reducing condition, low bulk density and bearing capacity, soft spongy substratum, low fertility, and usually high acidity.


Mires Swamps Marshes Fen Organic soils Peat Muck Histosols Peatlands Peatland use Peat extraction Peatland reclamation Peatland restoration 


  1. Abdullah M, Huat BBK, Kamaruddin R, Ali AK, Duraisamy Y (2007) Design and performance of EPS footing for lightweight farm structure on peat soil. Am J Appl Sci 4:484–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acreman MC, Miller F (2007) Hydrological impact assessment of wetlands. Proceedings of the ISGWAS conference on groundwater sustainability, Spain, January 2006. p 225–255.
  3. Akol AK (2012) Stabilization of peat soil using lime as a stabilizer. A project dissertation submitted to the Civil Engineering Programme. Universiti Teknologi Petronas, MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
  4. Alberti G, Leronni V, Piazzi M, Petrella F, Cairata P, Peressotti A, Piussi P, Valentini R, Cristina L, La Mantia T, Novara A, Rühl J (2011) Impact of woody encroachment on soil organic carbon and nitrogen in abandoned agricultural lands along a rainfall gradient in Italy. Reg Environ Chang 11(4):917–924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ambak K, Melling L (2000) Management practices for sustainable cultivation of crop plants on tropical peatland. Proceedings of the international symposium on tropical peatlands. Bogor, Indonesia, 22–23 November 1999. Hokkaido University and Indonesian Institute of Sciences: Bogor, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson R (2010) Restoring afforested peat bogs: results of current research. Forestry Commission Research Note. Available at:$FILE/FCRN006.pdf
  7. Anon (2012) Paludiculture: Sustainable productive utilization of rewetted peatlands. Institute of Botany and Landscape Ecology, University of Greifswald.
  8. Anshari GZ, Afifudin M, Nuriman M, Gusmayanti E, Arianie L, Susana R, Nusantara RW, Sugardjito J, Rafiastanto A (2010) Drainage and land use impacts on changes in selected peat properties and peat degradation in West Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. Biogeosciences 7:3403–3419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Asapo ES, Coles CA (2012) Characterization and comparison of saprist and fibrist Newfoundland Sphagnum peat soils. J Miner Mater Charact Eng 11:709–718Google Scholar
  10. Asing J, Wong NC, Lau S (2009) Optimization of extraction method and characterization of humic acid derived from coals and composts. J Trop Agric Fd Sc 37(2):211–223Google Scholar
  11. Bain CG, Bonn A, Stoneman R, Chapman S, Coupar A, Evans M, Gearey B, Howat M, Joosten H, Keenleyside C, Labadz J, Lindsay R, Littlewood N, Lunt P, Miller CJ, Moxey A, Orr H, Reed M, Smith P, Swales V, Thompson DBA, Thompson PS, Van de Noort R, Wilson JD, Worrall F (2011) IUCN UK Commission of Inquiry on Peatlands. IUCN UK Peatland Programme, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  12. Barthelmes A, Couwenberg J, Risager M, Tegetmeyer C, Joosten H (2015) Peatlands and climate in a Ramsar context a Nordic-Baltic Perspective. Nordic Council of Ministers, DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  13. Boguta P, Sokolowska Z (2014) Statistical relationship between selected physicochemical properties of peaty-muck soils and their fraction of humic acids. Int Agrophys 28:269–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Boguta P, Sokołowska Z, Bowanko G (2011) Influence of secondary transformation index of peat-muck soils on the content of selected metals. Acta Agrophysica 18(2):225–233Google Scholar
  15. Bonnett SAF, Ross S, Linstead C, Maltby E (2009) A review of techniques for monitoring the success of peatland restoration. Natural England Commissioned Reports 086, University of LiverpoolGoogle Scholar
  16. Boudreau S, Rochefort L (2008) Plant establishment in restored peatlands: 10-years monitoring of sites restored from 1995 to 2003. In Proceedings of the 13th International Peat Congress. Available at (20.1.14)
  17. Brandyk T, Gotkiewicz J, Łachacz A (2008) Principles of rational use of peat land in agriculture (in Polish). Post Nauk Roln 1:15–26Google Scholar
  18. Brandyk T, Szatylowicz J, Oleszczuk R, Gnatowski T (2003) Water-related physical attributes of organic soils. In: Parent L, Ilnicki P (eds) Organic Soils and Peat Materials for Sustainable Agriculture. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  19. Brown PA, Gill SA, Allen SJ (2000) Metal removal from wastewater using peat. Review paper. Water Res 34:3907–3916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brunning R (2001) Archaeology and peat wastage on the Somerset Moors. Report to the Environment Agency. Somerset County Council, TauntonGoogle Scholar
  21. Buol SB, Southard RJ, Graham RC, McDaniel PA (2011) Soil genesis and classification, 6th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Caliman JP, Carcasses R, Perel N, Wohlfahrt J, Girardin P, Wahyu A, Pujianto DB, Verwilghen A (2007) Agri-environmental indicators for sustainable palm oil production. Palmas 28:434–445Google Scholar
  23. Campos JRR, Silva AC, Fernandes JSC, Ferreira MM, Silva DV (2011) Water retention in a peatland with organic matter in different decomposition stages. R Bras Ci Solo 35:1217–1227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Charman D (2002) Peatlands and Environmental Change. John Wiley and Sons Ltd, West Sussex, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  25. Chistotin MV, Sirin AA, Dulov LE (2006) Seasonal dynamics of carbon dioxide and methane emission from peatland of Moscow Region drained for peat extraction and agricultural use. Agrochemistry 6:32–41. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  26. Cleary J, Roulet NT, Moore TR (2005) Greenhouse gas emissions from Canadian peat extraction, 1990–2000: A Life-cycle Analysis. Ambio 34:456–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Comeau L, Hergoualc'h K, Smith JU, Verchot L (2013) Conversion of intact peat swamp forest to oil palm plantation: Effects on soil CO2 fluxes in Jambi, Sumatra. CIFOR Working Paper no 110. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  28. Comte I, Colin F, Whalen JK, Grünberger O, Caliman JP (2012) Agricultural Practices in Oil Palm Plantations and Their Impact on Hydrological Changes, Nutrient Fluxes and Water Quality in Indonesia: A Review. In: Sparks DL (ed) Advances in Agronomy, vol 116, pp 71–124Google Scholar
  29. Couwenberg J (2011) Greenhouse gas emissions from managed peat soils: is the IPCC reporting guidance realistic? Mires and Peat 8(2):1–10Google Scholar
  30. Crill P, Hargreaves K, Korhola A (2000) The role of peat in Finnish greenhouse gas balances. Ministry of Trade and Industry Finland. Studies and Reports 10/2000Google Scholar
  31. Daigle J-Y, Gautreau-Daigle H (2001) Canadian peat harvesting and the environment, 2nd edn. Secretariat to the North American Wetlands Conservation Council Committee, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  32. de Groot WJ (2012) Peatland fires and carbon emissions. Canadian Forest Service, Great Lakes Forestry Centre, Sault Ste MarieGoogle Scholar
  33. Deverel SJ, Leighton DA (2010) Historic, recent, and future subsidence, Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, USA. San Francisco Estuary and Watershed. Science 8(2):23Google Scholar
  34. Droppo IG (2000) Filtration in particle analysis. In: Meyers RA (ed) Encyclopedia of analytical chemistry. Ramtech Ltd, Tarzana, CAGoogle Scholar
  35. Eastern Canada Soil and Water Conservation Centre (1997) Management and conservation practices for vegetable production on peat soils. University of Moncton, Moncton, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  36. Edil TB (2003) Recent advances in geotechnical characterization and construction over peats and organic soils. Proceedings of the 2nd international conferences in soft soil engineering and technology, Putrajaya (Malaysia), Embrapa EBDPA (2006) Sistema brasileiro de classificação de solos, 2nd edn, Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos, Rio de JaneiroGoogle Scholar
  37. Embrapa (2006) Brazilian system of soil classification. 2 ed. National Soil Research Center. Rio de Janeiro: Embrapa Solos, 2006Google Scholar
  38. FAO (2002) Small-Scale Palm oil processing in Africa. FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin 148 ISSN 1010–1365. Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  39. FAO (2005) Fertilizer Use by Crop in Indonesia, Natural Resources Management and Environment. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  40. FAO (2006) World reference base for soil resources 2006, A Framework for InternationalGoogle Scholar
  41. FAO (2009) FAOSTAT online statistical service. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. Available via URL. (Accessed August 2011)
  42. FAO/UNESCO (1974) Soil Map of the World. Volume 1, Legend. UNESCO, Paris, p. 62Google Scholar
  43. Firdaus MS, Gandaseca S, Ahmed OH, Majid NK (2012) Comparison of selected physical properties of deep peat within different ages of oil palm plantation. Int J Phys Sci 7(42):5711–5716Google Scholar
  44. Fitzherbert EB, Struebig MJ, Morel A, Danielsen F, Brühl CA, Donald PF, Phalan B (2008) How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity? Trends Ecol Evol 23(10):539–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Forster P, Ramaswamy V, Artaxo P, Berntsen T, Betts R, Fahey DW et al (2007) Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  46. Fox CA, Tarnocai C (2011) Organic soils of Canada: Part 2. Upland Organic soils. Can J Soil Sci 91:823–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fraser LH, Keddy PA (2005) The World’s Largest Wetlands: Ecology and Conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fredriksson D (2002) SGU, Uppsala. (cited from Kellner 2003)
  49. Freeman C, Fenner N, Ostle NJ, Kang H, Dowrick DJ, Reynolds B, Lock MA, Sleep D, Hughes S, Hudson J (2004) Export of dissolved organic carbon from peatlands under elevated carbon dioxide levels. Nature 430:195–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gawlik J, Harkot W (2000) Influence of the kind of moorsh and the state of its transformation on the germination and growth of Lolium perenne in the pot plant experiment during spring-summer cycle. Acta Agrophysica 26:25–40Google Scholar
  51. Goh KJ, Hardter R (2003) General Oil Palm Nutrition. In: Oil Palm: Management for Large and Sustainable Yields, Fairhurst, T. (eds.). Potash and Phosphate Institute, Singapore, pp. 191–230Google Scholar
  52. Goh KJ, Härdter R (2003a) General oil palm nutrition. In: Fairhurst T, Hardter R (eds) Oil palm: management for large and sustainable yields. Potash & Phosphate Institute/Potash & Phosphate Institute of Canada and International Potash Institute (PPI/PPIC and IPI), SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  53. Goh KJ, Härdter R, Fairhurst T (2003b) Fertilizing for maximum return. In: Fairhurst T, Hardter R (eds) Oil Palm: Management for Large and Sustainable Yields. Potash & Phosphate Institute/Potash & Phosphate Institute of Canada and International Potash Institute (PPI/PPIC and IPI), SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  54. Grozav A, Rogobete G (2010) Histosols and some other reference soils from the Semenic Mountains – Romania. Res J Agric Sci 42(3):149–153Google Scholar
  55. Hadden RM (2011) Smoldering and self-sustaining reactions in solids: an experimental approach. PhD Dissertation. University of Edinburgh, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  56. Heil A, Langmann B, Aldrian E (2006) Indonesian peat and vegetation fire emissions: study on factors influencing large-scale smoke haze pollution using a regional atmospheric chemistry model. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 12:113–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Helmut G (2006) Our earth’s changing land: an encyclopedia of land-use and land cover change. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 463. ISBN 9780313327841Google Scholar
  58. Hillman GR (1997) Effects of engineered drainage on water tables and peat subsidence in an Alberta treed fen. In: Trettin CC, Jurgensen MF, Grigal DF, Gale MR, Jeglum JK (eds) Northern Forested Wetlands: Ecology and Management. CRC Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  59. Holden J, Burt TP, Cox NJ (2001) Macroporosity and infiltration in blanket peat: the implications of tension disc infiltrometer measurements. Hydrol Process 15:289–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Holden J, Chapman P, Evans M, Hubacek K, Kay P, Warburton J (2006) Vulnerability of organic soils in England and Wales. Final technical report to DEFRA, Project SP0532Google Scholar
  61. Holden J, Chapman PJ, Labadz JC (2004) Artificial drainage of peatlands: hydrological and hydrochemical process and wetland restoration. Prog Phys Geogr 28(1):95–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Holman IP (2009) An estimate of peat reserves and loss in the East Anglian Fens Commissioned by the RSPB. Department of Natural Resources, Cranfield University, Cranfield, BedfordshireGoogle Scholar
  63. Hooijer A, Page S, Canadell JG, Silvius M, Kwadijk J, Wösten H, Jauhiainen J (2010) Current and future CO2 emissions from drained peatlands in Southeast Asia. Biogeosciences 7:1505–1514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hooijer A, Page S, Jauhiainen J, Lee WA, Lu XX, Idris A, Anshari G (2011) Subsidence and carbon loss in drained tropical peatlands: reducing uncertainty and implications for CO2 emission reduction options. Biogeosciences 8:9311–9356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hooijer A, Page S, Jauhiainen J, Lee WA, Lu XX, Idris A, Anshari G (2012) Subsidence and carbon loss in drained tropical peatlands. Biogeosciences 9:1053–1071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hoscilo A, Page SE, Tansey KJ, Rieley JO (2011) Effect of repeated fires on land-cover changes on peatland in southern Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, from 1973 to 2005. Int J Wildland Fire 20:578–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Huang PM, Li Y, Sumner ME (2011) Handbook of Soil Sciences: Properties and Processes, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Ilnicki P (2002) Peatlands and Peats. Wydawnictwo Akademii Rolniczej im. A Cieszkowskiego, Poznan, 606 pp. (in Polish)Google Scholar
  69. Ilomets M (2015) Estonia. In: Joosten H, Tanneberger F, Moen A (eds) Mires and peatlands of Europe: Status, distribution, and nature conservation. Schweizerbart. Science Publishers, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  70. IPCC (2006) In: Eggleston HS, Buendia L, Miwa K, Ngara T, Tanabe K (eds) 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories, prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme. IGES, JapanGoogle Scholar
  71. IPCC (2007) Climate Change 2007—The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC (ISBN 978 0521 88009–1 Hardback)Google Scholar
  72. Islam MS, Hashim R (2009) Bearing Capacity of Stabilized Tropical Peat by Deep Mixing Method. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 3(2):682–688Google Scholar
  73. Jauhiainen J, Limin S, Silvennoinen H, Vasander H (2008) Carbon dioxide and methane fluxes in drained tropical peat before and after hydrological restoration. Ecology 89:3503–3514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Jaya J (2002) Sarawak: Peat agricultural use. Retrieved from
  75. Joosten H, Clarke D (2002) Wise Use of Mires and Peatlands - Background and Principles Including a Framework for Decision-Making. International Mire Conservation Group and International Peat Society, Devon, UKGoogle Scholar
  76. Joosten H, Tapio-Biström ML, Tol S (2012) Peatlands - guidance for climate change mitigation through conservation, rehabilitation and sustainable use, 2nd edn. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and Wetlands International Mitigation of Climate Change in Agriculture (MICCA) Programme, RomeGoogle Scholar
  77. Kalantari B (2010) Stabilization of fibrous peat using ordinary Portland cement and additives. PhD Thesis, University of Putra, MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
  78. Kalantari B (2013) Civil Engineering Significant of Peat. Glob J Res Eng Civ Struct Eng 13(2):25–28Google Scholar
  79. Kalembasa D, Pakuła K (2008) Profile differences of Fe, Al and Mn in the peat-muck soils in the upper Liwiec river valley. Acta Sci Pol Agricultura 8(2):3–8Google Scholar
  80. Keddy PA (2010) Wetland Ecology: Principles and Conservation, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kellner E (2003) Wetlands – different types, their properties and functions. Technical Report TR-04-08
  82. Koh LP, Ghazoul J (2010) Spatially explicit scenario analysis for reconciling agricultural expansion, forest protection, and carbon conservation in Indonesia. Sustainability science. Records of the National Academy of Sciences.
  83. Kolli K, Asi E, Apuhtin V, Kauer K, Szajdak LW (2010) Chemical properties of surface peat on forest land in Estonia. Mires and Peat 6:1–12Google Scholar
  84. Kreye JK, Varner JM, Knapp EE (2011) Effects of particle fracturing and moisture content on fire behavior in masticated fuelbeds burning in a laboratory. Int J Wildland Fire 20:308–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Krogstad T, Bechmann M (2011) Reduced P application in peat soils.
  86. Langner A, Miettinen J, Siegert F (2007) Land cover change 2002–2005 in Borneo and the role of fire derived from MODIS imagery. Glob Change Biol 13:2329–2340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lappalainen E (1996) Global Peat Resources. International Peat Society, Finland, pp 53–281Google Scholar
  88. Leifeld J, Müller M, Fuhrer J (2011) Peatland subsidence and carbon loss from drained temperate fens. Soil Use Manag 27:170–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lester RB (2006) Plan B 2.0 rescuing a planet under stress and a civilization in trouble. (NY: WW Norton & Co.) Earth Policy InstituteGoogle Scholar
  90. Letts MG, Roulet NT, Comer NT, Skarupa MR, Verseghy DL (2000) Parameterization of Peatland Hydraulic Properties for the Canadian Land Surface Scheme. Atmosphere-Ocean 38(1):141–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Litaor MI, Eshel G, Reichmann O, Shenker M (2006) Hydrological control of phosphorus mobility in altered wetland soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 70:1975–1982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Lode E (2001) Natural mire hydrology in restoration of peatland functions. Doctoral thesis, Acta Universitatis Agrivuturae Sueciae, Silvestria 234, UppsalaGoogle Scholar
  93. Lohila A, Minkkinen K, Laine J, Savolainen I, Tuovinen JP, Korhonen L, Laurila T, Tietavainen H, Laaksonen A (2010) Forestation of boreal peatlands: Impacts of changing albedo and greenhouse gas fluxes on radiative forcing. J Geophys Res 115:G04011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Long M, Boylan N (2012) In-Situ Testing of Peat – a Review and Update on Recent Developments. Geotech Eng J SEAGS & AGSSEA 43(4):41–55Google Scholar
  95. Lucas RE (1982) Organic Soils (Histosols). Formation, distribution, physical and chemical properties and management for crop production. Michigan State University, Research Report No. 435 (Farm Science)Google Scholar
  96. MacDonald GM, Beilman DW, Kremenetski KV, Sheng Y, Smith LC, Velichko AA (2006) Rapid early development of circumarctic peatlands and atmospheric CH4 and CO2 variations. Science 314(5797):285–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Mäkiranta P, Hytönen J, Aro L, Maljanen M, Pihlatie M, Potila H, Shurpali NJ, Laine J, Lohila A, Martikainen PJ, Minkkinen K (2007) Greenhouse gas emissions from afforested organic soil, croplands and peat extraction peatlands. Boreal Environ Res 12:159–175Google Scholar
  98. Malawska M, Ekonomiuk A, Wiłkomirski B (2006) Chemical characteristics of some peatlands in southern Poland. Mires and Peat 1(2):1–14Google Scholar
  99. Miettinen J, Hooijer A, Shi C, Tollenaar D, Vernimmen R, Liew SC, Malins C, Page S (2012) Southeast Asian peatlands in 2010 with analysis of historical expansion and future projections. Glob Change Biol Bioenergy.
  100. Miettinen J, Liew SC (2010) Degradation and development of peatlands in peninsular Malaysia and in the islands of Sumatra and Borneo since 1990. Land Degrad Dev 21:285–296Google Scholar
  101. Miettinen J, Shi C, Liew SC (2011) Deforestation rates in insular Southeast Asia between 2000 and 2010. Glob Change Biol 17:2261–2270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Milne R, Mobbs DC, Thomson AM, Matthews RW, Broadmeadow MSJ, Mackie E, Wilkinson M, Benham S, Harris K, Grace J, Quegan S, Coleman K Powlson DS, Whitmore AP, Sozanska-Stanton M, Smith P, Levy PE, Ostle N, Murray TD, Van Oijen M, Brown T (2006) UK emissions by sources and removals by sinks due to land use, land use change and forestry activities. Report, April 2006. Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, UKGoogle Scholar
  103. Munro R (2004) Dealing with bearing capacity problems on low volume roads constructed on peat. The Highland Council, Transport, Environmental & Community Service, HQ, Glenurquhart Road, Inverness IV3 5NX ScotlandGoogle Scholar
  104. Murdiyarso D, Hergoualc’h K, Verchot LV (2010) Opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in tropical peatlands. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Mutert E, Fairhurst TH, von Uexküll HR (1999) Agronomic Management of Oil Pals on Deep Peat. Better Crops Int 13(1):22–27Google Scholar
  106. Nilsson S, Shvidenko A, Stolbovoi V, Gluck M, Jonas M, Obersteiner M (2000) Full Carbon Account for Russia. Interim Report IR-00-021. IIASA, Laxenburg, AustriaGoogle Scholar
  107. Novara A, Gristina L, La Mantia T, Rühl J (2011) Soil carbon dynamics during secondary succession in a semi-arid Mediterranean environment. Biogeosciences 8:11107–11138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Novoa-Munoz JC, Pomal P, Cortizas AM (2008) Histosols. In: Chesworth (ed) Encyclopedia of Soil Science. Springer, Dodrecht, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  109. O’Connor MB, Longhurst RD, Jonston TJM, Portegys FN (2001) Fertiliser requirements for peat soils in the Waikato region. Proc N Z Grassl Assoc 63:47–51Google Scholar
  110. Oleszczuk R, Regina K, Szajdak L, Höper H, Maryganowa V (2008) Impacts of agricultural utilization of peat soils on the greenhouse gas balance. In: Strack M (ed) Peatlands and Climate Change. International Peat Society, Jyväskylä, FinlandGoogle Scholar
  111. Page SE, Morrison R, Malins C, Hooijer A, Rieley JO, Jauhiainen J (2011) Review of peat surface greenhouse gas emissions from oil palm plantations in South East Asia. White Paper Number 15, Indirect Effects of Biofuel Production Series International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  112. Paivanen J (1991) Peatland forestry in Finland: present status and prospects. In: Jeglum JK, Overend RP (eds) Peat and peatlands diversification and innovation. Proc Symp 89. Vol 1. Peatland Forestry, The Canadian Society for Peat and PeatlandsGoogle Scholar
  113. Patterson G, Anderson R (2000) Forests and Peatland Habitats. Forestry Commission Corstorphine Road, Edinburg. Google Scholar
  114. Prasetyo BH, Suharta N (2011) Genesis and properties of peat at Toba Highland area of North Sumatra. Indonesian J Agric Sci 12(1):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Rahgozar MA, Saberian M (2016) Geotechnical properties of peat soil stabilised with shredded waste tyre chips. Mires and Peat 18(3):1–12.
  116. Rein G (2009) Smoldering combustion phenomena in science and technology. Int Rev Chem Eng 1:3–18Google Scholar
  117. Rezanezhad F, Quinton WL, Price JS, Elliot TR, Elrick D, Shook KR (2010) Influence of pore size and geometry on peat unsaturated hydraulic conductivity computed from 3D computed tomography image analysis. Hydrol Process 24(21):2983–2994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Richardson CJ, Huvane JK (2008) Ecological status of the Everglades: environmental and human factors that control the peatland complex on the landscape. In: Richardson CJ (ed) The Everglades Experiments: Lessons for Ecosystem Restoration. Springer, DodrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Ringqvist L, Holmgren A, Oborn I (2002) Poorly humified peat as an adsorbent for metals in wastewater. Water Res 36:2394–2404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Satrio AE, Gandaseca S, Ahmed OH, Majid NMA (2009) Effect of logging operation on soil carbon storage of a tropical peat swamp forest. Am J Environ Sci 5:748–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Sayok AK, Nik AR, Melling L, Samad AR, Efransjah E (2008) Some characteristics of peat in Loagan Bunut National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia. International Symposium, Workshop and Seminar on Tropical Peatland, Yogyakarta, INDONESIA. 27–31 August 2007 (
  122. Schumann M, Joosten H (2008) Global Peatland Restoration Manual. Institute of Botany and Landscape Ecology, Griefswald University, Germany. htm
  123. SERI (2004) The SER International Primer on Ecological Restoration. Society for Ecological Restoration International, Tucson.
  124. Sheil D, Casson A, Meijaard E, van Nordwijk M, Gaskell J, Sunderland-Groves J, Wertz K, Kanninen M (2009) The impacts and opportunities of oil palm in Southeast Asia: What do we know and what do we need to know? Occasional paper no. 51. CIFOR, BogorGoogle Scholar
  125. Sigua GC, Kong WJ, Coleman SW (2006) Soil profile distribution of phosphorus and other nutrients following wetland conversion to beef cattle pasture. Environ Qual 35:2374–2382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Silva AC, Horak I, Martinez-Cortizas A, Vidal Torado P, Rodrigues-Racedo J, Grazziotti PH, Silva EB, Ferreira CA (2009a) Turfeiras da Serra do Espinhaço Meridional - MG. I - Caracterização e classificação. R Bras Ci Solo 33:1385–1398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Silva AC, Horak I, Vidal Torado P, Martinez-Cortizas A, Rodrigues-Racedo J, Cmpos JRR (2009b) Turfeiras da Serra do Espinhaço Meridional - MG.II - Influência da drenagem na composição elementar e substâncias húmicas. R Bras Ci Solo 33:1399–1408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Silvius M, Diemont H (2007) Deforestation and degradation of peatlands. Peatlands Int 2:32–34Google Scholar
  129. Silvius M, Kaat A, van de Bund H (2006) Peatland degradation fuels climate change. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  130. Soil Survey Staff (1999) Soil Taxonomy 2nd edn. United States Department of Agriculture. Govt Printing Office, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  131. Soil Survey Staff (2010) Keys to Soil Taxonomy, 11th edn. United States Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  132. Sokołowska Z, Boguta P (2010) State of the dissolved organic matter in the presence of phosphates. In: Szajdak LW, Karabanov AK (eds) Chemical, Physical and Biological Processes Occurring in Soils. Prodruk Press, Poznań, PolandGoogle Scholar
  133. Sokołowska Z, Szajdak L, Boguta P (2011) Effect of phosphates on dissolved organic matter release from peatmuck soils. Int Agrophys 25:173–180Google Scholar
  134. Stichnothe H, Schuchardt F (2011) Life cycle assessment of two palm oil production systems. Biomass Bioenergy 35(9):3976–3984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Szajdak L, Maryganova V, Meysner T, Tychinskaja L (2002) Effect of shelterbelt on two kinds of soils on the transformation of organic matter. Environ Int 28:383–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Tallis JH (1998) Growth and Degradation of British and Irish Blanket Mires. Environment Reviews 6:81–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Tanneberger F, Wichtmann W (2011) Carbon Credits from Peatland Rewetting Climate – Biodiversity – Land Use. Schweizerbart. Science Publishers, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  138. Tarmizi MA, Mohd TD (2006) Nutrient demands of Tenera oil palm planted on inland soils of Malaysia. J Oil Palm Res 18:204–209Google Scholar
  139. Tarnocai C, Canadell JG, Schuur EAG, Kuhry P, Mazhitova G, Zimov S (2009) Soil organic carbon pools in the northern circumpolar permafrost region. Global Biogeochem Cycles 23:GB2023, 11PPCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. USDA (2007) Indonesian Palm Oil Production. United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  141. van Beek CL, Droogers P, van Hardeveld HA, van der Eertwegh GAPH, Velthof GL, Oenema O (2007) Leaching of solutes from an intensively managed peat soil to surface water. Water Air Soil Pollut 182:291–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. van den Akker JJH, Kuikman PJ, de Vries F, Hoving I, Pleijter M, Hendriks RFA, Wolleswinkel RJ, Simões RTL, Kwakernaak C (2008) Emission of CO2 from agricultural peat soils in the Netherlands and ways to limit this emission. In: Farrell C, Feehan J (eds) Proceedings of the 13th international peat congress “After wise use –the future of Peatlands”, Vol 1 Oral Presentations. International Peat Society, JyväskyläGoogle Scholar
  143. van den Wyngaert IJJ, Kramer H, Kuikman P, Lesschen JP (2009) Greenhouse Gas Reporting of the LULUCF Sector, Revisions and Updates Related to the Dutch NIR 2009. Alterra Report 1035–7Google Scholar
  144. van Schie WL (2000) The Use of Peat in Horticulture –Figures and Developments, International Peat Society Surveys 2000. International Peat Society, Jyskä, FinlandGoogle Scholar
  145. Volungevicius J, Amaleviciute K, Liaudanskiene I, Slepetiene A, Slepetys J (2015) Chemical properties of Pachiterric Histosol as influenced by different land use. Zemdirbyste-Agriculture 102(2):123–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. von Uexkull HR (2007) Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). East and South East Asia Program for the Potash & Phosphate Institute/International Potash Institute, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  147. Waddington JM, Warner KD (2001) Atmospheric CO2 sequestration in restored mined peatlands. Ecoscience 8:359–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Waddington JM, Warner KD, Kennedy GW (2002) Cutover peatlands: a persistent source of atmospheric CO2. Global Biogeochem Cycles 16:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Wahid MB, Akmar-Abdullah SN, Henson IE (2005) Oil palm -achievements and potential. Plant Prod Sci 8:288–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Watts AC, Kobziar LN (2013) Smoldering combustion and ground fires: ecological effects and multi-scale significance. Fire Ecology 9(1):124–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Wichtmann W (2011) Biomass use for food and fodder. In: Tanneberger F, Wichtmann W (eds) Carbon Credits from peatland rewetting. Climate - biodiversity - land use. Schweizerbart Science publishers, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  152. Wichtmann W, Joosten H (2007) Paludiculture: peat formation and renewable resources from rewetted peatlands. IMCG-Newsletter 3:24–28Google Scholar
  153. Wilson D, Alm J, Laine J, Byrne KA, Farrell EP, Tuitila E-S (2008) Rewetting of cutaway peatlands: are we re-creating hot spots of methane emissions? Restor Ecol.
  154. Yeloff DE, Labadz JC, Hunt CO (2006) Causes of degradation and erosion of a blanket mire in the southern Pennines, UK. Mires and Peat 1(4):1–18Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Khan Towhid Osman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Soil ScienceUniversity of ChittagongChittagongBangladesh

Personalised recommendations