Saline and Sodic Soils

  • Khan Towhid Osman
Chapter

Abstract

According to different estimates, there are 831 to 932 million hectares of salt affected soils – saline soils, saline-sodic soils and sodic soils. The measure of salinity is the electrical conductivity of the saturation extract (ECe) and the measure of sodicity is the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) or the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). Saline soils have ECe > 4 dS m−1 (decisiemens per meter) at 25° C and ESP < 15 (high soluble salts and low exchangeable Na+). Sodic soils have ECe < 4 dS m−1 and ESP > 15 (low soluble salts and high exchangeable Na+). Saline-sodic soils are characterized by ECe > 4 dS m−1 and ESP > 15 (both salts and exchangeable sodium are high). These soils mainly occur in arid and semi-arid regions where precipitation to evapotranspiration ratio is low. These soils also develop in coastal regions because of the flooding of sea water, and in irrigated areas due to the rise of the groundwater table and in some impermeable soils of the humid regions due to lack of leaching. Salts adversely affect plant growth and crop yield. Crop failures are common occurrences although some plants may have some degree of tolerances. Salt tolerant crops can be grown in some low to moderately saline soils, but soil salinity may be so severe in some cases that cropping becomes impossible. Management of saline soils involves selecting salt tolerant crops, salt scraping, salt flushing, and leaching with irrigation and artificial drainage. Usually, chemical amendments are not necessary for the reclamation of saline soils, but chemical treatment is needed prior to leaching for managing sodic soils. Substances that contain soluble calcium such as gypsum and CaCl2, and sulfuric acid or substances that produce sulfuric acid after application to soil such as sulfur, pyrite, ferrous sulfate, aluminium sulfate etc. are used as amendments for sodic soils. Phytoremediation of sodic soils has also been successful on some occasions.

Keywords

Saline soils Sodic soils Saline-sodic soils Reclamation Salt tolerance Salt scraping Salt flushing Leaching Leaching requirement Gypsum requirement 

References

  1. Abdelgawad A, Arslan A, Awad F, Kadouri F (2004) Deep plowing management practice for increasing yield and water use efficiency of vetch, cotton, wheat and intensified corn using saline and non-saline irrigation water. Proceedings of the 55th IEC Meeting of the International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID), September 9–10, 2004, Moscow, RussiaGoogle Scholar
  2. Agar AI (2011) Reclamation of saline and sodic soil by using divided doses of phosphogypsum in cultivated condition. Afr J Agric Res 6(18):4243–4252Google Scholar
  3. Akhter J, Mahmood K, Malik KA, Ahmed S, Murray R (2003) Amelioration of a saline sodic soil through cultivation of a salt-tolerant grass Leptochloafusca. Environ Conserv 30:168–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akramkhanov A, Sommer R, Martius C, Hendrickx JMH, Vlek PLG (2008) Comparison and sensitivity of measurement techniques for spatial distribution of soil salinity. Irrig Drain Syst 22:115–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Amezketa E, Aragüés R, Gazol R (2005) Efficiency of Sulfuric Acid, Mined Gypsum, and Two Gypsum By-Products in Soil Crusting Prevention and Sodic Soil Reclamation. Agronomy Journal 97(3):983–989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Amiri B, Assareh MH, Jafari M, Rasuoli B, Arzani B, Jafari AA (2010) Effect of salinity on growth, ion content and water status of glasswort (Salicorniaherbacea L.) Caspian J Env Sci 8(1):79–87Google Scholar
  7. Anon (2015) Trees and shrubs that tolerate saline soils and salt spray drift. Publication 430–031, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, www.ext.vt.edu
  8. Ansari AA, Ismail SA (2008) Biodynamic management in sodic soils. J Soil Nature 2(2):01–04Google Scholar
  9. Ashraf M (2001) Relationships between growth and gas exchange characteristics in some salt-tolerant amphidiploid Brassica species in relation to their diploid parents. Environ Exp Bot 45:155–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ashraf M (2009) Biotechnological approach of improving plant salt tolerance using antioxidants as markers. Biotech Adv 27:84–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Aslam M, Prathapar SA (2006). Strategies to mitigate secondary salinization in the Indus Basin of Pakistan: A Selective Review. Research Report 97. International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Colombo, Sri LankaGoogle Scholar
  12. Ayers RS, Westcot DW (1985) Water quality for agriculture. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 29. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  13. Azizi M, Chehrazi M, Zahedi SM (2011) Effects of salinity stress on germination and early growth of sweet William (Dianthus barbatus). Asian J Agric Sci 3(6):453–458Google Scholar
  14. Balibrea ME, Cuartero J, Bolarín MC, Pérez-Alfocea F (2003) Activities during fruit development of Lycopersicon genotypes differing in tolerance salinity. Physiol Plant 118:38–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Barros MFC, Fontes MPF, Alvarez VVH, Ruiz HA (2004) Reclamation of salt-affected soils in Northeast Brazil with application of mined gypsum and limestone. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental 8(1):59–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Barry GA, Rayment GE, Jeffery AJ, Price AM (2001) Changes in cane soil properties from application of sugar mill by-products. Proceeding Conference of the Australian Society of Sugarcane Technology. Mackay, QueenslandGoogle Scholar
  17. Bauder JW, Brock TA (2001) Irrigation water quality, soil amendment, and crop effects on sodium leaching. Arid Land Res Manag 15:101–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bayuelo-Jiménez JS, Debouck GD, Lynch JP (2003) Growth, gas exchange, water relations, and ion composition of Phaseolus species grown under saline conditions. Field Crop Res 80:207–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Botia P, Navarro JM, Cerda A, Martinez V (2005) Yield and fruit quality of two melon cultivars irrigated with saline water at different stages of development. Eur J Agron 23:243–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chaum S, Pokasombat Y, Kirdmanee C (2011) Remediation of salt affected soil by gypsum and farmyard manure−importance for the production of jasmine rice. Aust J Crop Sci 5:458–465Google Scholar
  21. Chen K, Jiao JJ (2008) Metal concentrations and mobility in marine sediment and groundwater in coastal reclamation areas: a case study in Shenzhen, China. Environ Pollut 151(3):576–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chengrui M, Dregne HE (2001) Silt and the future development of China’s Yellow River. Geogr J 167:7–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chinnusamy V, Jagendorf A, Zhu JK (2005) Understanding and improving salt tolerance in plants. Crop Sci 45:437–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Corwin DL, Rhoades JD, Simunek J (2007) Leaching requirement for soil salinity control: steady-state versus transient models. Agric Water Manag 9:65–180Google Scholar
  25. CSIRO (2000) Management of dryland salinity: future strategic directions. Primary Industries Report Series 78, CSIRO Publishing, PO Box 1139 (150 Oxford Street), Collingwood, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  26. Cui J, Liu C, Li Z, Wang L, Chen X, Ye Z, Fang C (2012) Long-term changes in topsoil chemical properties under centuries of cultivation after reclamation of coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary, China. Soil Tillage Res 123:50–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. del Amor FM, Martinez V, Cerda A (2001) Salt tolerance of tomato plants as affected by stage of plant development. Hort Sci 36:1260–1263Google Scholar
  28. Dhanapackiam S, Ilyas MHM (2010) Effect of salinity on chlorophyll and carbohydrate contents of Sesbania grandiflora seedlings. Indian J Sci Technol 3(1):64–66Google Scholar
  29. Dong H (2012) Technology and field management for controlling soil salinity effects on cotton. AJCS 6(2):333–341Google Scholar
  30. Elsayed MT, Babiker MH, Abdelmalik ME, Mukhtar ON, Montange D (2008) Impact of filter mud application on the germination of sugarcane and small-seeded plants and on soil and sugarcane nitrogen contents. Bioresour Technol 99:4164–4168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. EPA (2004) Guidelines for Water Reuse, September 2004, EPA/625/R-04/108, Environment Protection Agency, USAGoogle Scholar
  32. Essa TA (2002) Effect of salinity stress on growth and nutrient composition of three soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) Cultivars. J Agron Crop Sci 188(2):86–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ewase ASS, Omran S, El-Sherif S, Tawfik N (2013) Effect of salinity stress on coriander (Coriandrum sativum) seeds germination and plant growth. Egypt Acad J BiolSci 4(1):1–7Google Scholar
  34. Falstad J (2000) Soil condition. transplant status in Burger Draw. Billings Gazette. Prepared by D.G. Steward Page. Burger Draw Comments and Recommendations. 6/06/00Google Scholar
  35. FAO (2002) Global network on integrated soil management for sustainable use of salt-affected soils. FAO Land and Plant Nutrition Management Services, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  36. FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations) (2006) TerraSTAT database. At: <http://www.fao.org/ag/agl/agll/terrastat/>
  37. Flagella Z, Cantore V, Giuliani MM, Tarantio E, De Caro A (2002) Crop salt tolerance physiological, yield and quality aspects. Rec Res Dev Plant Biol 2:155–186Google Scholar
  38. Garg N, Singla R (2004) Growth, photosynthesis, nodule nitrogen and carbon fixation in the chickpea cultivars under salt stress. Braz J Plant Physiol 16(3):137–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Garg VK, Malhotra S (2008) Response of Nigella sativa L. to fertilizers under sodic soil condition. J Med Aromat Plant Sci 30:122–125Google Scholar
  40. Ghoulam C, Foursy A, Fares K (2002) Effects of salt stress on growth, inorganic ions and proline accumulation in relation to osmotic adjustment in five sugar beet cultivars. Environ Exp Bot 47:39–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gomez JM, Jimenz A, Olmas E, Sevilla F (2004) Location and effects of long-term NaCl stress on superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase isoenzymes of pea (Pisum sativum cv. Puget) chloroplasts. J Exp Bot 55:119–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gregory PJ, Nortcliff S (2013) Soil conditions and plant growth. Wiley Blackwell, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gupta RK, Abrol IP (2000) Salinity build-up and changes in the rice-wheat system of the Indo-Gangetic Plains. Exp Agric 36:273–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hadley D (2009) Land use and the coastal zone. Land Use Policy 26S:S198–S203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hanay A, Büyüksönmez F, Kızıloglu FM, Canbolat MY (2004) Reclamation of saline-sodic soils with gypsum and MSW compost. Compos Sci Utili 12:175–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hanson BR, May DM (2004) Effect of subsurface drip irrigation on processing tomato yield, water table depth, soil salinity and profitability. Ag Water Mgt 68:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Haque SA (2006) Salinity problems and crop production in coastal regions of Bangladesh. Pak J Bot 38(5):1359–1365Google Scholar
  48. Hernandez JA, Ferrer MA, Jimenez A, Barcelo AR, Sevilla F (2001) Antioxidant systems and O2−/H2O2 production in the apoplast of pea leaves. Its relation with salt-induced necrotic lesions in minor veins. Plant Physiol 127:817–831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Higbie SM, Wang F, McD SJ, Sterling TM, Lindemann WC, Hughs E, Zhang J (2010) Physiological response to salt (NaCl) stress in selected cultivated tetraploid cottons. Int. J Agron 1:1–12Google Scholar
  50. Horneck DA, Ellsworth JW, Hopkins BG, Sullivan DM, Stevens RG (2007) Managing salt-affected soils for crop production. A Pacific Northwest Extension publication Oregon State University, University of Idaho, Washington State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  51. Hussain N, Hassan G, Arshadullah M, Mujeeb F (2001) Evaluation of amendments for the improvement of physical properties of sodic soil. Int J Agric Biol 3:319–322Google Scholar
  52. Jamali LA, Ibupoto KA, Chattah SH (2012) Effects of salt leaching on soil under different irrigation amounts and intervals. Sixteenth International Water Technology Conference, IWTC 16 2012, Istanbul, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  53. Jamil A, Riaz S, Ashraf M, Foolad MR (2011) Gene expression profiling of plants under salt stress. Crit Rev Plant Sci 30(5):435–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Joachim HJR, Makoi P, Ndakidemi A (2007) Reclamation of sodic soils in northern Tanzania, using locally available organic and inorganic resources. African J Biotech 6(16):1926–1931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kang DJ, Endo A, Seo YJ (2013) Effect of soil scraping on the reclamation of tsunami-damage paddy soil. J crop Sci. Biotech 16(3):219–223Google Scholar
  56. Kara T, Willardson LS (2006) Leaching requirements to prevent soil salinization. J Applied Sci 6(7):1481–1489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Karlberg L (2005) Irrigation with saline water using low-cost drip-irrigation systems in sub-Saharan Africa. PhD Thesis, KTH Architecture and the built environment, Stockholm, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  58. Khan MA, Duke NC (2001) Halophytes- a resource for the future. Wetl Ecol Manag 6:455–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Khattak RA, Khan RJ (2004) Evaluation, reclamation and management of saline sodic soils in Kohat division. Final Report. Deptartment of Soil and Environmental Sciences, NWFP Agriculture University Peshawar. National Drainage Programme (NDP), Govt of PakistanGoogle Scholar
  60. Khorsandi F, Anagholi A (2009) Reproductive compensation of cotton after salt stress relief at different growth stages. J Agron Crop Sci 195:278–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Khoshgoftarmanesh AH, Shariatmadari H, Vakil R (2003) Reclamation of saline soils by leaching and barley production. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 34(19–20):2875–2883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lie HJ, Cho CH, Lee S, Kim ES, Koo BJ, Noh JH (2008) Changes in marine environment by a large coastal development of the Saemangeum Reclamation Project in Korea. Ocean and. Polar Res 30(4):475–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lobell DB, Ortiz-Monsterio JI, Gurrola FC, Valenzuuela L (2007) Identification of saline soils with multiyear remote sensing of crop yields. Soil Sci Soc Am J 71:777–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Maghsoudi AM, Maghsoudi K (2008) Salt stress effect on respiration and growth of germinated seeds of different Wheat (Triticum aesativum L.) cultivars. World J Agri Sci 4(3):351–358Google Scholar
  65. Mansour MM (2000) Nitrogen containing compounds and adaptation of plants to salinity stress. Biol Plant 43:491–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Martinez-Beltran J, Manzur CL (2005) Overview of salinity problems in the world and FAO strategies to address the problem. Proceedings of the International Salinity Forum, April 2005, Riverside, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  67. Metternicht GI, Zinck JA (2003) Remote sensing of soil salinity: potentials and constraints. Remote Sens Environ 85:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mohamed K, Abdel-Fattah (2012) Role of gypsum and compost in reclaiming saline-sodic soils. IOSR J Agric Vet Sci 1(3):30–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Moradi P, Zavareh M (2013) Effects of salinity on germination and early seedling growth of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars. Intl J Farm Alli Sci 2(3):70–74Google Scholar
  70. Mudgal V, Madaan N, Mudgal A, Mishra S (2009) Changes in growth and metabolic profile of Chickpea under salt stress. J Appl Biosci 23:1436–1446Google Scholar
  71. Mudgal V, Madaan N, Mudgal A, Singh A, Kumar P (2010) Comparative study of the effects of salinity on plant growth, nodulation, and Legheamoglobin Content in Kabuli and Desi Cultivars of Cicer arietinum (L.). KBM. J Biol 1:1–4Google Scholar
  72. Muhammad D, Khattak RA (2009) Growth and nutrient concentrations of maize in pressmud treated saline-sodic soils. Soil Environ 28(2):145–155Google Scholar
  73. Munns R (2005) Genes and salt tolerance: bringing them together. Tansley rev. New Phytol 167:645–663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Naseri AA, Rycroft D (2002) Effect of swelling and overburden weight on hydraulic conductivity of a restructured saline sodic clay. Paper presented at the 17th World Congress of Soil Science, 14–21 August 2002, Bangkok, ThailandGoogle Scholar
  75. Naseri R, Emami T, Mirzaei A, Soleymanifard A (2012) Effect of salinity (sodium chloride) on germination and seedling growth of barley (Hordeum Vulgare vulgare L.) cultivars. Int J Agric Crop Sci 4(13):911–917Google Scholar
  76. Nasser JY, Sholi C (2012) Effect of salt stress on seed germination, plant growth, photosynthesis and ion accumulation of four tomato cultivars. Am J Plant Physiol 7:269–275. AmericanCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ondrasek G, Romic D, Rengel Z, Romic M, Zovko M (2009) Cadmium accumulation by muskmelon under salt stress in contaminated organic soil. Sci Tot Enviro 407:2175–2182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Oster JD, Grattan SR (2002) Drainage water reuse. Irrig Drain Syst 16:297–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Oster JD, Wichelns D (2003) Economic and agronomic strategies to achieve sustainable irrigation. Irrig Sci 22:107–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Parida AK, Das AB (2005) Salt tolerance and salinity effects on plants. A review. Ecotox Environ Safety 60:324–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Partha N, Sivasubramanian V (2006) Recovery of chemicals from pressmud- A sugar industry waste. Indian Chem Eng Section 48(3):160–163Google Scholar
  82. Parvaiz A, Satyawati S (2008) Salt stress and phyto-biochemical responses of plants – a review. Plant Soil Environ 54:89–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Patel BB, Patel Bharat B, Dave RS (2011) Studies on infiltration of saline–alkali soils of several parts of Mehsana and Patan districts of north Gujarat. J Appl Technol Environ Sanit 1(1):87–92Google Scholar
  84. Pitman MG, Lauchli A (2002) Global impact of salinity and agricultural ecosystems. In: Lauchli A, Luttge U (eds) Salinity: environment – plants – molecules. Kluewer Academic Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  85. Prapagar K, Indraratne SP, Premanandharajah P (2012) Effect of soil amendments on reclamation of saline-Sodic soil. Trop Agric Res 23(2):168–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Qadir M, Noble MD, Schubert S, Thomas RJ, Arslan A (2006) Salinity induced land degradation and its sustainable management: problems and prospects. Land Degrad Dev 17:661–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Qadir M, Oster JD (2004) Crop and irrigation management strategies for saline-sodic soils and water aimed at environmentally sustainable agriculture. Sci Total Environ 323:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Qadir M, Oster JD, Schubert S, Noble AD, Sahrawat KL (2007) Phytoremediation of sodic and saline-sodic soils. Adv Agron 96:197–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Qadir M, Wichelns D, Raschid-Sally L, McCornick PG, Drechsel P, Bahri A, Minhas PS (2010) The challenges of wastewater irrigation in developing countries. Agric Water Manag 97:561–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Qureshi AS, Qadir M, Heydari N, Turral H, Javadi A (2007) A review of management strategies for salt-prone land and water resources in Iran.International Water Management Institute, IWMI Working Paper 125, Colombo, Sri LankaGoogle Scholar
  91. Radi AA, Farghaly FA, Hamada AM (2013) Physiological and biochemical responses of salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive wheat and bean cultivars to salinity. J Biol Earth Sci 3(1):B72–B88Google Scholar
  92. Rangaraj T, Somasundaram E, Amanullah MM, Thirumurgan V, Ramesh S, Ravi S (2007) Effect of Agro-industrial wastes on soil properties and yield of irrigated finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn) in coastal soil. Res J Agric Biol Sci 3(3):153–156Google Scholar
  93. Rengasamy P (2006) World salinization with emphasis on Australia. J Exp Bot 57:1017–1023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Richards LA (1954) Diagnosis and improvements of saline and alkali soils. USDA Agriculture Handbook 60. USACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Romero-Aranda R, Soria T, Cuartero S (2001) Tomato plant-water uptake and plant-water relationships under saline growth conditions. Plant Sci 160:265–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sadeghi H (2010) The effects of different salinity levels on some important physiological characteristics of two wheat cultivars. 11th Iranian Crop Science Congress, Environmental Sciences research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, IranGoogle Scholar
  97. Salehifar M, Torang A, Farzanfar M, Salehifar M (2010) Comparison of salinity stress effect on germination and seedling growth in 8 lines genotypes of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). 11th Iranian Crop Science Congress, Environmental Sciences research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehra, IranGoogle Scholar
  98. Santos CV, IP F˜a, Pinto GC, Oliveira H, Loureiro J (2002) Nutrient responses and glutamate and proline metabolism in sunflower plants and calli under Na2SO4 stress. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 165:366–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sarraf M (2004) Assessing the costs of environmental degradation in the Middle East and North Africa countries. Environment Strategy Notes, No. 9. Environment Department, World Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  100. Shirokova YI, Forkutsa I, Sharafutdinova N (2000) Use of electrical conductivity instead of soluble salts for soil salinity monitoring in Central Asia. Irrig Drain Syst 14:199–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Shrivastava P, Kumar R (2015) Soil salinity: a serious environmental issue and plant growth promoting bacteria as one of the tools for its alleviation. Saudi J Biol Sci 22(2):123–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sival AA, Skaggs TH, Van Genuchten MT (2009) Reclamation of saline soils by partial ponding: simulations for different soils. Vadose Zone J 9(2):486–495Google Scholar
  103. Soil Survey Staff (1993) Soil Survey Manual, Handbook 18, USDA, NRCS. US Gov Print Off, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  104. Sun Y, Li X, Mander U, He Y, Jia Y, Ma Z, Guo W, Xin Z (2011) Effect of reclamation time and land use on soil properties in Changjiang River Estuary, China. Chin Geogr Sci 21(4):403–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Tester M, Davenport R (2003) Na+ tolerance and Na+ transport in higher plants. Ann Bot 91:503–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Tobe K, Li X, Omasa K (2002) Effects of sodium, magnesium and calcium salts on seed germination and radicle survival of a halophyte, Kalidium capsicum (Chenopodiaceae). Australian. J Botany 50:163–169Google Scholar
  107. Tobe K, Zhang L, Omasa K (2003) Alleviatory effects of calcium on the toxicity of sodium, potassium and magnesium chlorides to seed germination in three non- halophytes. Seed Sci Res 13:47–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. USDA NRCS (2010) Plants for saline to sodic soil conditions. Technical Note: Plant Materials 9A, USDA-NRCS, Salt Lake City, UtahGoogle Scholar
  109. USDA-NRCS (2011) Crop tolerance and yield potential of selected crops as influenced by irrigation water salinity (ECw) or soil salinity (ECe). USDA-NRCS, Washington, DC Gregory PJ, Nortcliff S (2012) Soil Conditions and Plant Growth. Blackwell-Wiley, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  110. Van Breemen N, Burman P (2002) Soil formation, 2nd edn. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DodrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Wang L, Coles N, Wu C, Wu J (2014) Effect of long-term reclamation on soil properties on a coastal plain, Southeast China. J Coast Res 30(4):661–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wilson C, Lesch SM, Grieve CM (2000) Growth stage modulates salinity tolerance of New Zealand spinach (Tetragonia tetragonioides, Pall) and Red Orach (Atriplex hortensis L). Annals Bot 85:501–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Yadav S, Irfan M, Ahmad A, Hayat S (2011) Causes of salinity and plant manifestations to salt stress: a review. J Environ Biol 32:667–685Google Scholar
  114. Yensen NP (2008) Halophyte uses for the twenty-first century. In: Khan MA, Weber DJ (eds) Ecophysiology of high salinity tolerant plants. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  115. Zeinolabedin J (2012) The effects of salt stress on plant growth. Tech J Eng Appl Sci (TJEAS) 2(1):7–10Google Scholar
  116. Zhu JK (2001) Plant salt tolerance. Trends Plant Sci 6(2):66–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Khan Towhid Osman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Soil ScienceUniversity of ChittagongChittagongBangladesh

Personalised recommendations