A Regulatory Primer of International Environmental Policy and Land Use
A review of international environmental regulation and land use in action establishes the high-level legal foundation of regulatory guidelines to define concepts, highlight important areas of law to promote fundamental understanding, create general discourse, address existing conditions, and prioritize ecosystem destruction avoidance from common ground. The analysis discusses natural resources, land use, and economic development on a global scale guiding the reader through high-level international environmental policy with a focus on land use and land degradation. The chapter demonstrates the overarching role of international environmental policy and land use in the development of policy at subsequent levels of government—national, state, or local—shaping land use policy and decision-making that can incrementally contribute to overall improvements to the global landscape, and thus population health.
KeywordsEnvironmental law Public health law Land use Land degradation
The author would like to thank the Legal Information Institute at Cornell University Law School for their commitment to open access of legal topics and associated law in their online directory. Also, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development for thought-provoking content and forward-thinking research. Finally, The World Bank in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the United Nations for access to their consistent and reliable data. Dissemination of this information is the sole responsibility of the author and utilization of this material does not imply legal advice or endorsement.
The number of different species contained within specific ecosystems
A consequence of land degradation; when species are lost to an ecosystem due to deforestation and other human activity
A consequence of land degradation; when human activity strip forests without concern for the long-term consequences of land and water quality
One consequence of land degradation; when a region that is already characterized as being dry with relatively less precipitation or naturally occurring bodies of water, plants, and animals suffers losses from human activity, weather, and other conditions
Analyzing various effects on social, economic, environmental conditions and taking measures to minimize impact of new development
When land is unable to produce natural resources (e.g., crops, wilderness, grazing areas) due to overuse, contamination or other causes elicited from human activity and production
Linked to several major areas of public administration such as natural resource management, waste disposal, transportation, urbanization, agriculture, recreation, and forest
Task of local governments to utilize national or regional spatial planning guidance to formulate specific land use
Dangerous disease transmitted when an infected mosquito bites several humans; impacts human red blood cells that, in turn, impact organs such as the brain, kidneys, and liver
A consequence of land degradation; when human activity removes soil stabilizing canopies that protect water resources and soil fertility is lost as weather (e.g., wind, rain, direct sunlight) removes top soil rendering it useless for crops
A task of national governments to determine the potential general structure of human activity to guide local planners on specific land use
Spread by infectious mosquitoes; particularly harmful to fetus development
The transmission of infectious diseases in animals to humans caused by a variety of pathogens including viruses (e.g., rabies, HIV, and Ebola), bacteria (anthrax found in soil consumed by goats, sheep; bartonella from cat scratches), fungi (dermatomycoses from rats), or parasitic activity (Trichinella found in cows and pigs)
- Cheshire PC. Identifying principles for spatial policy: levels of intervention. Portuguese J Reg Stud. 2007;13:55–65. http://www.apdr.pt/siteRPER/numeros/RPER13/13.4.pdf. Accessed 2 Sept 2017.Google Scholar
- Compare Infobase, Ltd. World interactive map. 2017. https://www.mapsofworld.com/world-map-viewer.html. Accessed 3 Sept 2017.
- Cornell Law School, Legal Information Institute. International environmental law. n.d. https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/International_environmental_law. Accessed 24 Jul 2017.
- Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. The state of the world’s land and water resources for food and agriculture. FAO Rome. 2011. http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/i1688e/i1688e00.pdf. Accessed 27 Aug 2017.
- Institute for Spatial and Landscape Development, ETH Zurich. Spatial planning and development in Switzerland; observations and suggestions from the international group of experts, Swiss Federal Office for Spatial Development (ARE). 2008.Google Scholar
- International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions (INTOSAI) Working Group on Environmental Auditing (WGEA). Land use and land management practices in environmental perspective. 2013. http://www.environmental-auditing.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=NiwOS89K5Jk%3D&tabid=128&mid=568. Accessed 24 Jul 2017.
- Jordan R. Agriculture and deforestation: how to reduce impacts. Stanford Wood Institute for the Environment. 2015. https://woods.stanford.edu/news-events/news/agriculture-and-deforestation-how-reduce-impacts. Accessed 3 Sept 2017.
- McClellan R. Farming: habitat conversion & loss. 2017. http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/footprint/agriculture/impacts/habitat_loss/. Accessed 3 Sept 2017.
- NationMaster. Country land area. 2013. http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/stats/Geography/Land-area/Square-miles. Accessed 2 Sept 2017.
- Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Executive summary. In: Land-use planning systems in the OECD: country fact sheets. OECD Publishing, Paris; 2017a. https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264268579-2-en. Accessed 14 Sept 2017.
- Robbins J. How forest loss is leading to a rise in human disease. 2016. https://e360.yale.edu/features/how_forest_loss_is_leading_to_a_rise_in_human_disease_malaria_zika_climate_change. Accessed 3 Sept 2017.
- Solie S. How valuing nature is transforming decisions. 2015. https://woods.stanford.edu/news-events/news/how-valuing-nature-transforming-decisions. Accessed 14 Sept 2017.
- The World Bank. Agricultural land (sq km) [Data source Food and Agriculture Organization]. 2017a. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.K2?view=chart. Accessed 31 Aug 2017.
- The World Bank. Forest land (sq km) [Data source Food and Agriculture Organization]. 2017b. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.K2?view=chart . Accessed 31 Aug 2017.
- The World Bank. Forest land (% of land area). [Data source Food and Agriculture Organization]. 2017c. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS?view=chart. Accessed 1 Sept 2017.
- The World Bank. Agriculture land (% of land area) [Data source Food and Agriculture Organization]. 2017d. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS?view=chart. Accessed 1 Sept 2017.
- Turkoglu H, et al. A participatory spatial planning process: the case of Bursa, Turkey. 48th International Society of City and Regional Planners (ISOCARP) Congress, Perm, Russia, 10–13 September. 2012.Google Scholar
- United Nations (UN). Glossary of environment statistics, studies in methods, Series F, No. 67. 1997. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
- United Nations (UN). Sustainable development goals. 2017. http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals/. Accessed 1 Sept 2017.
- United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Economic Research Service. Major land uses. 2016. https://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/farm-economy/land use-land-value-tenure/major-land uses/. Accessed 24 Jul 2017.
- American Society of International Law. Electronic information system for international law (EISIL). 2013. http://www.eisil.org/index.php?sid=478272769&t=sub_pages&cat=18. Accessed 28 Aug 2017.
- Hennig B. Views of the world: ecological footprints. 2015. http://www.viewsoftheworld.net/?p=4639. Accessed 14 Sept 2017.
- Norton RK, Bieri DS. Planning, law, and property rights: a U.S.-European cross-national contemplation. 2014. http://david-bieri.com/docs/NB_PlanningLawPropertyRights_IPS14.pdf. Accessed 18 Sept 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- OpenLandContracts.Org. An online repository of open land contracts. n.d. http://openlandcontracts.org/. Accessed 27 Aug 2017.
- Organization Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Search ‘land use planning’. [Online]. 2017. http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/. Accessed 14 Sept 2017.
- The Center for Climate & Security. Exploring the security risks of climate change. 2017. https://climateandsecurity.org. Accessed 24 Jul 2017.
- The World Bank Group. Data catalog. 2017. http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/. Accessed 28 Aug 2017.
- Werrill C, Femia F. Chronology of military and intelligence concerns about climate change. 2017. https://climateandsecurity.org/2017/01/12/chronology-of-the-u-s-military-and-intelligence-communitys-concern-about-climate-change/#more-11797. Accessed 24 Jul 2017.