Advertisement

Abstract

This chapter introduces the aims, objectives and arguments of the book. In addition, it examines the two fundamental themes, that is democracy and media freedom, on which the book is grounded. Furthermore, the chapter provides the historical background of both countries (i.e. Ghana and Nigeria) and how the antecedents during colonialism and the independence era have continued to influence the media systems and democratization processes of Ghana and Nigeria respectively. The chapter concludes that there are different democratic cultures which must be recognized, as the attempt at universalizing Western norms of democracy has led to the belief that democracy is incompatible with Africa.

Keywords

Democracy Media reform Participation Broadcast Print Ghana and Nigeria 

Bibliography

  1. Adebanwi, W., & Obadare, E. (2011). The Abrogation of the Electorate: An Emergent African Phenomenon. Democratization, 18(2), 311–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ainslie, R. (1966). The Press in Africa: Communications Past and Present. London: Gollancz.Google Scholar
  3. Ake, C. (1991). Rethinking African Democracy. Journal of Democracy, 2(1), 32–44.Google Scholar
  4. Ake, C. (1996). Democracy and Development in Africa. Washington DC: The Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  5. Ake, C. (2000). The Feasibility of Democracy in Africa. Dakar: CODESRIA.Google Scholar
  6. Akpojivi, U., & Fosu, M. (2016). Indigenous Language Broadcasting in Ghana: Retrospect and Prospect. In A. Salawu & M. Chibita (Eds.), Indigenous Language Media, Language Politics and Democracy in Africa. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  7. Alhassan, A. (2005). Market Valorisation in Broadcasting Policy in Ghana: Abandoning the Quest for Media Democratization. Media Culture and Society, 27(2), 211–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Andrea, M., & Shaw, C. (2009). Accountability and the Public Interest in Broadcasting. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  9. Ansu-Kyeremeh, K., & Karikari, K. (1998). Media Ghana: Ghanaian Media Overview, Practitioners and Institutions. Accra: University of Ghana Printing Press.Google Scholar
  10. Bennett, W., & Serrin, W. (2007). The Watchdog Role of the Press. In D. A. Graber (Ed.), Media Power in Politics. Washington DC: CQ Press.Google Scholar
  11. Blankson, I. (2007). Media Independence and Pluralism in Africa Opportunities and Challenges of Democratization and Liberalization. In I. Blankson & P. Murphy (Eds.), Negotiating Democracy Media Transformations in Emerging Democracies. Albany: State University of New York.Google Scholar
  12. Boafo-Arthur, K. (1998). The International Community and Ghana’s Transition to Democracy. In K. Ninsin (Ed.), Ghana: Transition to Democracy. Dakar: CODESRIA.Google Scholar
  13. Bourgault, L. (1995). Mass Media in Sub-Saharan Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Campbell, J. (2011). Nigeria Dancing on the Brink. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc.Google Scholar
  15. Chomsky, N. (2011). How the World Works. New York: Penguin Group.Google Scholar
  16. Clapham, C. (1993). Democratization in Africa: Obstacles and Prospects. Third World Quarterly, 14(3), 423–438.Google Scholar
  17. Coker, I. (1960). “The Nigerian Press: 1929–1959”, in Committee on Inter-African Relations “Report on the Press in West Africa”, prepared for the International Seminar on Press and Progress in West Africa. University of Dakar.Google Scholar
  18. Dahl, R. (1971). Polyarchy Participation and Opposition. London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  19. De Gale, C. (1999). Ghana Media Report. Available online at: http://journ.ru.ac.ac/amd/Ghana.htm. Accessed 20 Feb 2007.
  20. Diamond, L. (2008a). Consolidating Democracy. In L. LeDUC, R. Niemi, & P. Norris (Eds.), Comparing Democracies 2 New Challenges in the Study of Elections and Voting. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  21. Diamond, L. (2008b). Progress and Retreat in Africa the Rule of Law Verse the Big Man. Journal of Democracy, 19, 138–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Donkor, P. (2007). Self Censorship in Ghana Broadcasting Corporation (GBC) (M. A. Dissertation). University of Leeds.Google Scholar
  23. Ekpu, R. (1990). Nigeria’s Embattled Fourth Estate. Journal of Democracy, 1(2), 106–116.Google Scholar
  24. Federal Republic of Nigeria. (1999). The Nigeria Press Council (NPC) Act. Lagos: Federal Government Press.Google Scholar
  25. Fourie, P. (2008). Ubuntuism As a Framework for South African Media Practice and Performance: Can it Work? South African Journal for Communication Theory and Research, 34(1), 53–79.Google Scholar
  26. Hachten, W. (1993). The Growth of Media in the Third World: African Failures, Asian Successes. Ames: Iowa State University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Hasty, J. (2005). The Press and Political Culture in Ghana. Indiana: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Huntington, S. (1991). The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
  29. Jakubowicz, K. (2002). Media in Transition the Case of Poland. In M. Price, B. Rozumilowicz, & S. Verhulst (Eds.), Media Reform Democratizing the Media, Democratizing the State. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  30. Jibo, M., & Okoosi, A. (2003). The Nigerian Media: An Assessment of Its Role in Achieving Transparent and Accountable Government in the Fourth Republic. Nordic Journal of African Studies, 12(2), 180–195.Google Scholar
  31. Jones-Quartey, K. (1960). “The Ghana Press”, in Committee on Inter-African Relations “Report on the Press in West Africa”, Prepared for the International Seminar on Press and Progress in West Africa. University of Dakar.Google Scholar
  32. Keane, J. (1991). The Media and Democracy. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  33. Kolade, C. (1974). Nigeria. In S. Head (Ed.), Broadcasting in Africa: A continental Survey of Radio and Television. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Kwame, K. (2004). Press Freedom in Africa Challenges and Opportunities. New Economy. Google Scholar
  35. Kwesi, Y. (1995). Speaking for the Chief: Okyeame and the Politics of Akan Royal Oratory. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  36. LaMay, C. (2007). Exporting Press Freedom Economic and Editorial Dilemmas in International Media Assistance. London: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  37. Mabadeje, I. (2004). The Nigerian Press Under the Military: A Compendium of Cases of Press Freedom Violations in Nigeria (1966–1999). Uyo: Robertminder International Ltd.Google Scholar
  38. Mackay, I. (1964). Broadcasting in Nigeria. Ibadan: Ibadan University Press.Google Scholar
  39. McChesney, R. (1999). Rich Media, Poor Democracy: Communication Politics in Dubious Times. New York: The New Press.Google Scholar
  40. Moyer, B. (2008, July 11). Is the Fourth Estate a Fifth Column?: Corporate Media Colludes with Democracy’s Demise. In These Times.Google Scholar
  41. Musa, M., & Mohammed, J. (2004). The Political Economy of Media Ownership in Nigeria. In T. Pradip & Z. Nain (Eds.), Who Owns the Media Global Trends and Local Resistances. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  42. NBC. (2009a). Management Structure of the National Broadcasting Commission. Online: www.nbc.gov.ng. Accessed 28 Nov 2009.
  43. NBC. (2009b). Online: www.nbc.gov.ng. Accessed 23 Dec 2008.
  44. NMC Act. (1993). National Media Commission Act 1993, Act 449. Accra: Government Printer.Google Scholar
  45. Nyamnjoh, F. (2003). Media Pluralism and Diversity: A Critical Review of Competing Models. In Broadcasting Policy and Practice in Africa by Article 19.Google Scholar
  46. Nyamnjoh, F. (2004). Media Ownership and Control in Africa in the Age of Globalization. In T. Pradip & Z. Nain (Eds.), Who Owns the Media Global Trends and Local Resistances. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  47. Nyamnjoh, F. (2005). Africa’s Media Democracy and the Politics of Belonging. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  48. Nyerere, J. (2000). Africa Today and Tomorrow. Dar Es Salaam: The Mwalimu Nyerere Foundation.Google Scholar
  49. Ogbondah, C. (2004). Democratization and the Media in West Africa: An Analysis of Recent Constitutional and Legislative Reforms for Press Freedom in Ghana and Nigeria. West Africa Review, 6, 1–36.Google Scholar
  50. Ojo, E. (2003). The Mass Media and the Challenges of Sustainable Democratic Values in Nigeria: Possibilities and Limitations. Media Culture & Society, 25(6), 821–840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Onwumechili, C. (2007). Nigeria: Equivocating While Opening the Broadcast Liberalization Gates. In I. Blankson & P. Murphy (Eds.), Negotiating Democracy Media Transformations in Emerging Democracies. Albany: State University of New York.Google Scholar
  52. Opoku-Mensah, A. (1998). Up in the Air? The State of Broadcasting in Southern Africa. Analysis and Trend in Six Countries. South Africa: PANOS.Google Scholar
  53. Paterson, C. (1998). Reform or Re-Colonisation? The Overhaul of African Television. Review of African Political Economy, 25(78), 571–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Price, M. (2002). Media and Sovereignty the Global Information Revolution and Its Challenge to State Power. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  55. Price, M., & Verhulst, S. (2000). Introduction. In M. Price & S. Verhulst (Eds.), Broadcasting Reform in India Media Law from a Global Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Radelet, S. (2010). Success Stories from Emerging Africa. Journal of Democracy, 21(4), 87–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rozumilowicz, B. (2002). Democratic Change: A Theoretical Perspective. In M. Price, B. Rozumilowicz, & S. Verhulst (Eds.), Media Reform Democratizing the Media, Democratizing the State. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  58. Silverstone, R. (1999). Why Study the Media? London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  59. Tudesq, A. (1983). La Radio en Afriqua Noire. Paris: Editions A. Pedone.Google Scholar
  60. Tudesq, A. (1992). L’Afrique Noire et ses Television. Paris: Anthropos.Google Scholar
  61. Voltmer, K. (2008). Comparing Media Systems in New Democracies: East Meets South Meets West. Central European Journal of Communication, 1, 23–40.Google Scholar
  62. Wasserman, H., & Boloka, M. (2004). Privacy, the Press and the Public Interest in Post-Apartheid South Africa. Parliamentary Affairs, 57(1), 185–195.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ufuoma Akpojivi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Media StudiesUniversity of the WitwatersrandJohannesburgSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations