Advertisement

Negotiation and Learning: Processes and Products

  • Raymond Smith
Chapter
Part of the Professional and Practice-based Learning book series (PPBL, volume 23)

Abstract

This chapter is the first of two chapters (This chapter and Chap.  3) that outline the two primary perspectives of negotiation used to align the concept with learning practice. This chapter examines negotiation as a specific form of interactivity that illustrates how participants come together to make decisions, solve problems, and construct agreements. It draws on the perspectives of experiential learning, organisational behaviour, economics, and management, where work and learning are predominantly about productivity and improved performance. Negotiation from this perspective is about connecting with others and directing activity through purposeful influence and understanding in order to identify and manage that connection and the kinds of outcomes this connection enables and accomplishes. The chapter focuses on learning as the experiential process and product of coming to arrangements and making agreements about shared activity. As such, negotiation can be mapped and modelled as sets of phased activity that secure desirable outcomes through planning and “meeting”, that is, bringing together parties who are otherwise separate but now need to jointly create solutions to circumstances that have connected them. Such activities have parallels with learning practices and hence the concept of negotiation is seen as a way of illuminating these practices as social practices. What remains insufficiently examined from these perspectives are the contextual, incidental and hidden qualities that make work-learning far more than a managed process of engagement in planned activity, far more than a sequence of give and take that leads to desired outcomes.

References

  1. Adler, P. S., & Borys, B. (1996). Two types of bureaucracy: Enabling and coercive. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41, 61–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersson, A., & Lindstrom, B. (2017). Making collaboration work- developing boundary work and boundary awarenesss in emergency exercises. Journal of Workplace Learning, 29(4), 286–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bacon, N., & Blyton, P. (2006). Union cooperation in a context of job insecurity negotiated outcomes from teamworking. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 44(2), 215–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baum, T. (2002). Skills and training for the hospitality sector. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 54(3), 343–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beersma, B., Hollenbeck, J. R., Humphrey, S. E., Moon, H., Conlon, D. E., & Ilgen, D. R. (2003). Cooperation, competition and team performance: Toward a contingency approach. Academy of Management Journal, 46(5), 572–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Billett, S. (2001a). Learning in the workplace: Strategies for effective practice. Sydney, Australia: Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
  7. Billett, S. (2001b). Co-participation at work: Affordance and engagement. In T. Fenwick (Ed.), Sociocultural perspectives on learning through work (pp. 63–72). San Francisco: Josey Bass/Wiley.Google Scholar
  8. Billett, S. (2006). Work, subjectivity and learning. In S. Billett, T. Fenwick, & M. Somerville (Eds.), Work, subjectivity and learning (pp. 1–20). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Billett, S. (2008). Learning throughout working life: A relational interdependence between personal and social agency. British Journal of Educational Studies, 56(1), 39–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Billett, S., & Pavlova, M. (2005). Learning through working life: Self and individuals’ agentic action. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 24, 195–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boomer, G. (1982). Negotiating the curriculum: A teacher-student partnership. Sydney, Australia: Ashton Scholastic.Google Scholar
  12. Boud, D. (1992). The use of self-assessment schedules in negotiated learning. Studies in Higher Education, 17(2), 185–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boud, D., & Garrick, J. (1999). Understandings of workplace learning. In D. Boud & J. Garrick (Eds.), Understanding learning at work (pp. 1–11). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  14. Bourdieu, P. (1986). The forms of capital. In J. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education (pp. 241–258). New York: Greenwood.Google Scholar
  15. Bratton, J. (2001). Why workers are reluctant learners: The case of the Canadian pulp and paper industry. Journal of Workplace Learning, 13(7/8), 333–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brown, T. (2007). Organising learning: Informal workplace learning in a trade union campaign to organise private-sector child care workers. In S. Walters & L. Cooper (Eds.), Conference proceedings – Researching work and learning: 5th International conference on researching work and learning (pp. 110–116). Bellville, South Africa: Division for Lifelong Learning, University of the Western Cape.Google Scholar
  17. Carlisle, J., & Leary, M. (1981). Negotiating groups. In R. Payne & C. Cooper (Eds.), Groups at work (pp. 165–188). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  18. Coleman, J. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. The American Journal of Sociology, 94(Supplement: Organizations and Institutions: Sociological and Economic Approaches to the Analysis of Social Structure), S95–S120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Colley, H., Hodkinson, P., & Malcolm, J. (2003). Informality and formality in learning. London: Learning and Skills Research Centre.Google Scholar
  20. Crawley, J., & Graham, K. (2002). Mediation for managers: Resolving conflict and rebuilding relationships at work. London: Nicholas Brealey.Google Scholar
  21. Dawson, R. (2003). Secrets of power negotiating. In R. J. Lewicki, D. M. Saunders, J. W. Minton, & B. Barry (Eds.), Negotiation: Readings, exercises and cases (4th ed., pp. 94–104). New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin.Google Scholar
  22. de Turbeville, S. (2007). Union decline and renewal in Australia and Britain: Lessons from closed shops. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 28(3), 374–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dewey, J. (1958). Experience and nature. La Salle, IL: Open Court Publishing.Google Scholar
  24. Dewey, J. (1963). Experience and education. New York: Collier.Google Scholar
  25. Druckman, D. (2001). Turning points in international negotiation. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 45(4), 519–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ellstrom, P. E. (2011). Informal learning at work: Conditions, processes and logics. In M. Malloch, L. Cairns, K. Evans, & B. O’Connor (Eds.), The Sage handbook of workplace learning (pp. 105–119). Los Angeles: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fisher, R., & Ury, W. (1991). Getting to yes: Negotiating agreement without giving in. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  28. Fox, A. (1966). Industrial sociology and industrial relations. London: HMSO.Google Scholar
  29. Freire, P. (1974). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
  30. Garavan, T., Morley, M., Gunnigle, P., & McGuire, D. (2002). Human resource development and workplace learning: Emerging theoretical perspectives and organisational practices. Journal of European Industrial Training, 26(2–4), 60–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Greenhalgh, L. (2001). Managing strategic relationships. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  32. Gulliver, P. (1979). Disputes and negotiations: A cross-cultural perspective. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  33. Harris, R., Simons, M., & Bone, J. (2006). Mix or match? New apprentices’ learning styles and trainers’ preferences for training in workplaces. Adelaide, Australia: NCVER.Google Scholar
  34. Harvard Business Press & Society for Human Resource Management. (2005). The essentials of negotiation. Boston/Alexandria, VA: Authors.Google Scholar
  35. Hennessey, T., & Sawchuk, P. (2003). Worker responses to technological change in the Canadian public sector: Issues of learning and labour process. Journal of Workplace Learning, 15(7/8), 319–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Heyes, J. (2000). Workplace industrial relations and training. In H. Rainbird (Ed.), Training in the workplace: Critical perspectives on learning at work (pp. 148–168). Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Holmes, M. E. (1992). Phase structures in negotiation. In L. Putnam & M. Roloff (Eds.), Communication and negotiation (pp. 83–105). Newbury Park, UK: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Illeris, K. (2007). How we learn: Learning and non-learning in school and beyond. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  39. Illeris, K. (2011). The fundamentals of workplace learning: Understanding how people learn and work in life. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  40. Jarvis, P. (2004). Adult education and lifelong learning: Theory and practice (3rd ed.). London: Routledge Falmer.Google Scholar
  41. Jarvis, P. (2006). Towards a comprehensive theory of human learning. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  42. Kalliola, S., Nakari, R., & Pesonen, I. (2006). Learning to make changes: Democratic dialogue in action. Journal of Workplace Learning, 18(7/8), 464–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kersley, B., Alpin, C., Forth, J., Bryson, A., Brewley, H., Dix, G., et al. (2006). Inside the workplace: Findings from the 2004 Workplace Employment Relations Survey. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  44. Kissinger, H. (1969). The Vietnam negotiations. Foreign Affairs., 47, 211–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Knowles, M. (1986). Using learning contracts. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  46. Kolb, D. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  47. Kolb, D. (2015). Negotiating at work. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  48. Kolb, D., & Williams, J. (2003). Everyday negotiation: Navigating the hidden agendas in bargaining. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  49. Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lewicki, R., Barry, B., & Saunders, D. (2010). Negotiation (6th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.Google Scholar
  51. Lewicki, R. J., Saunders, D. M., & Barry, B. (2006). Negotiation (5th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.Google Scholar
  52. Lewicki, R. J., Saunders, D. M., & Minton, J. W. (2001). Essentials of negotiation (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin.Google Scholar
  53. Lewin, K. (1942). Field theory and learning. In D. Cartwright (Ed.). (1951). Field theory in Social Science: Selected theoretical papers (pp. 60–86). London: Social Science Paperbacks.Google Scholar
  54. Maitra, S., & Shan, H. (2007). Transgressive vs conformative: Immigrant women learning at contingent work. Journal of Workplace Learning, 19(5), 286–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Marsden, D., & Belfield, R. (2006). Pay for performance where output is hard to measure: The case of performance pay for school teachers. In B. E. Kaufman & D. Lewin (Eds.), Advances in industrial and labor relations (pp. 1–34). London: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  56. Marsden, D. W. (2004). The role of performance related pay in renegotiating the ‘effort bargain’: The case of the British Public Service. Industrial and Labour Relations Review, 57(3), 350–370.Google Scholar
  57. Marsden, D. W. (2007). Individual employee voice: Renegotiation and performance management in public services. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(7), 1263–1278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Marsick, V., & Watkins, K. (1990). Informal and incidental learning in the workplace. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  59. Marx, K. (1867). Capital: A critique of political economy (Vol. 1). London: Lawrence and Wishart.Google Scholar
  60. Menkel-Meadow, C. (2009). Chronicling the complexification of negotiation theory and practice. Negotiation Journal, 25(4), 415–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mezirow, J. (1991). Transformative dimensions of adult learning. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.Google Scholar
  62. Mezirow, J. (2000). Learning to think like an adult: Core concepts of transformation theory. In J. Mezirow & Associates (Ed.), Learning as transformation: Critical perspectives on a theory in progress (pp. 3–34). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  63. Monk, P. (2007). Fair choices. Bacchus Marsh, Australia: Connor Court Publishing.Google Scholar
  64. Mouzas, S. (2006). Negotiating umbrella agreements. Negotiation Journal, 22(3), 279–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2005). Performance-related pay policies for government employees: An overview of OECD countries. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  66. Pfeffer, J. (1998). The human equation: Building profits by putting people first. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  67. Piaget, J. (1971). Genetic epistemology (E. Duckworth, Trans.). New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  68. Pruitt, D. (1981). Negotiation behaviour. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  69. Putnam, L., Wilson, S., & Turner, D. (1990). The evolution of policy arguments in teachers’ negotiations. Argumentation, 4(2), 129–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Putnam, R. D. (Ed.). (2002). Democracies in flux: The evolution of social capital in contemporary society. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Raiffa, H. (1990). The art and science of negotiation (2nd ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Rousseau, D. (2005). I-Deals: Idiosyncratic deals employees bargain for themselves. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  73. Saner, R. (2005). The expert negotiator (2nd ed.). Leiden, MA: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.Google Scholar
  74. Sawchuk, P. (2007). Understanding the work/learning implications of ‘community unionism’ in Canada: The case of hotel workers organising in Toronto. In S. Walters & L. Cooper (Eds.), Conference proceedings – Researching work and learning: 5th international conference on researching work and learning (pp. 724–730). Bellville, South Africa: Division for Lifelong Learning, University of the Western Cape.Google Scholar
  75. Schunk, D. (2008). Learning theories: An educational perspective (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  76. Skule, S. (2004). Learning conditions at work: A framework to understand and assess informal learning in the workplace. International Journal of Training and Development, 1, 8–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Smith, R. (2006). Epistemological agency: A necessary action-in-context perspective on new employee workplace learning. Studies in Continuing Education, 28(3), 291–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Smith, T. (2000). Technology and capital in the age of lean production: A Marxian critique of the “new economy”. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  79. Stepp, J. R., Sweeney, K. M., & Johnson, R. L. (2003). Interest-based negotiation: An engine-driving change. In R. J. Lewicki, D. M. Saunders, J. W. Minton, & B. Barry (Eds.), Negotiation: Readings, exercises and cases (4th ed., pp. 114–121). New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin.Google Scholar
  80. Strauss, A. (1978). Negotiations: Varieties, contexts, processes and social order. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.Google Scholar
  81. Tennant, M. (1999). Is learning transferable? In D. Boud & J. Garrick (Eds.), Understanding learning in the workplace (pp 165–179). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  82. Tennant, M. (2006). Psychology and adult learning (3rd ed.). Milton Park, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  83. Thompson, T. (2010). Self-employed and online: Renegotiating work-learning practices. Journal of Workplace Learning, 22(6), 360–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Treffinger, D., & Isaksen, S. (1992). Creative problem solving: An introduction. Sarasota, FL: Center for Creative Learning.Google Scholar
  85. Treffinger, D., & Isaksen, S. (2005). Creative problem solving: The history, development and implications for gifted education and talent development. Gifted Child Quarterly, 49(4), 342–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning and identity. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Zartman, I. W. (1988). Common elements on the analysis of the negotiation process. Negotiation Journal, 4(1), 31–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Zartman, I. W. (2008). Negotiation and conflict management: Essays on theory and practice. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  89. Zwier, P., & Guernsey, T. (2005). Advanced negotiation and mediation theory and practice. South Bend, IN: The National Institute for Trial Advocacy.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raymond Smith
    • 1
  1. 1.Griffith UniversityBrisbaneAustralia

Personalised recommendations