Boko Haram and Identity Reconstruction in Lake Chad Basin Region
Boko Haram poses a significant threat to global security, considering its capability to sustain persistent strikes against Nigerian State and the adjourning neighbours of Cameroon, Chad and Niger republics. At the wake of the group’s public emergence in 2002, the respective governments, citizens and the International Societies greatly under estimated its capability. Initially, Boko Haram was a mere local group with limited domestic objectives and either perceived in religious, political, or ethnic terms. These notions about the group persisted until 2010, when the group began full-scale terrorism as a strategy to confront the states. Not until the United State of America thereto designated the group in 2013 as a terrorist organisation. The affected countries as a choice of modality, adopted a multinational counter- insurgency approach to curb the situation. Despite these, researchers and policy makers have done little to understand and highlight the motivation and the underlying factors why the group would commit suicide, destroy lives and property for reasons that are difficult to comprehend within the scope of ordinary logic. This research establishes that the fervent desire to reconstruct identity along Islamic rules and principles, as a way of life, underlie the determination of the group and their unwillingness to consensus but total defeat of the world system, which they consider evil. The ideological and cultural components of the group’s struggle remain the source of the conflict, strength, persistence, and their resilience.
KeywordsBoko Haram Terrorism Lake Chad Basin Identity reconstruction
- Adamu, A.U. 2013. Insurgency in Nigeria: The Northern Nigerian Experience. In Complex Emergency in Nigeria, ed. O. Obafemi and H. Galadimas. Kuru, Nigeria: National Institute for Policy and Strategic Studies.Google Scholar
- Adesoji, A. 2010. The Boko Haram Uprising and Islamic Revival in Nigeria. African Spectrum 45 (2): 95–108. Institute of African Affairs, GIGA, Hamburg-Germany. www.jstor.org/stable. Accessed 30 Aug 2016.
- Aghedo, I. 2015. Nigeria’s Boko Haram; From Guerrilla Strategy to Conventional Warfare? The Round Table 104 (4): 515–516. Google Scholar
- Aghedo, I., and O. Osumah. 2015. Insurgency in Nigeria: A Comparative Study of Niger Delta and Boko Haram Uprisings. Journal of African and Asian Studies 50 (2). www.jas.sagepab.com. Accessed 22 Aug 2016.
- Ajayi, A.I. 2012. ‘Boko Haram’ and Terrorism in Nigeria: Exploratory and Explanatory Notes. Global Advanced Research Journal of History, Political Science and International Relations 1 (5): 103–107.Google Scholar
- Akinola, O. 2015. Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria: Between Islamic, Fundamentalism, Politics and Poverty. http://www.tandfonline.com. Accessed 22 Aug 2016.
- Ayegba, U.S. 2015. Unemployment and Poverty as Sources and Consequences of Insecurity in Nigeria: The Boko Haram Insurgency Revisited. African Journal of Political Science and International Relations. http://www.academicjournal.org/AJPSIR. Accessed 23 Aug 2016.
- Borum, R. 2011. Radicalization into Violent Extremism: A Review of Social Science Theories. Journal of Strategic Security 4 (4): 7–36. http://scholrcommons.usf.edu/Jess/vol4/iss4/2.
- Buzan, B. 1991. People, State and Fear, An Agenda for International Security Studies in Post-Cold-War Era, 2nd ed., 186–229. Colchester: ECRP Press.Google Scholar
- Buzan, B., O. Waever, and J. deWilde. 1998. A New Framework for Analysis Boulder. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
- Comolli, V. 2015. Boko Haram: Nigeria’s Islamist Insurgency, 208. London: Hurst.Google Scholar
- Fafowora, O. 2013. Understanding Insurgencies in Nigeria: Nature, Types, Dynamics and the Way out; A Key Note Address. In Complex Emergency in Nigeria, ed. O. Obafemi and H. Galadiman. Kuru, Nigeria: National Institute for Policy and Strategic Studies.Google Scholar
- Hansen, W.W., and U.A. Musa. 2013. Fanon the Wretched and Boko Haram. Journal of African and Asian Studies. www.jas.sagepub.com. Accessed 29 July 2016.
- Harnischfeger, J. 2014. Boko Haram and Its Muslim Critics: Observation from Yobe State. In Boko Haram: Islamism, Politics, Security and the State in Nigeria, ed. Marc-Antoine Pérouse de Montclos, Leiden.Google Scholar
- Hynes, J. 2015. Religion and International Conflict. In International Security Studies; Theory and Practice, ed. P. Hough et al. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Kaldor, M. 1999. New and Old Wars; Organised Violence in the Global Era in Pilbeam, B. 2015. New Wars, Globalization and Failed States. In International Security Studies; Theory and Practice, ed. P. Hough et al. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Kwanashie, M. 2013. Diagnostic Review of Insurgency in Nigeria, Sources, Causes and Remedies: The Economic Dimension. In Complex Emergency in Nigeria, ed. O. Obafemi and H. Galadiman. Kuru, Nigeria: National Institute for Policy and Strategic Studies.Google Scholar
- Ladan, S.I. 2014. Forest and Forest Reserves as Security Threats in Northern Nigeria. European Scientific Journal 10 (35): 120–142.Google Scholar
- Loimeier, R. 2012. Boko Haram: The Development of a Militant Religious Movement in Nigeria. African Spectrum 47 (2/3): 137–155.Google Scholar
- Maiangwa, B., et al. 2012. Baptism by Fire: Boko Haram and the Region of Terror in Nigeria. Africa Today 59 (2): 41–57.Google Scholar
- McCormick, G.H. 2003. Terrorist Decision Making in Borum, R. 2011. Radicalization into Violent Extremism: A Review of Social Science Theories. Journal of Strategic Security 4 (4): 15.Google Scholar
- Nathaniel, A. 2015. The Islamic State, Boko Haram and the Evolution of international Jihad. Washington Post, Web Blog, Post-blogss, WP, Company LLC.Google Scholar
- Onuoha, F.C. 2012. The Audacity of Boko Haram: Background, Analysis and Emerging Trend. Security Journal 52 (2): 134–151. www.palgrave.journals.com/sj/.
- Oyewole, S. 2015. Boko Haram: Insurgency and the War Against Terrorism in the Lake Chad Basin. Strategic Analysis. 39 (4): 428–432. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09700161.2015.1047227.
- Patel, I.A. 2007. The Scale for Defining Islamic Political Radicalism; A European Perspective. In Complex Emergency in Nigeria, ed. O. Obafemi and H. Galadiman. Kuru, Nigeria: National Institute for Policy and Strategic Studies.Google Scholar
- Perouse de Montclos, M. 2016. A Sectarian Jihad in Nigeria: The Case of Boko Haram. Small Wars and Insurgencies. www.tandfonline.com.
- Pilbeam, B. 2015. New Wars, Globalization and Failed States. In International Security Studies; Theory and Practice, ed. P. Hough et al. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Sandig, S. 2015. Framing Protest and Insurgency: Boko Haram and MASSOB in Nigeria. Civil War. www.tandfonline.com. Accessed 22 Aug 2016.
- Shea, N. 2014. Barberism 2014: On Religious Cleansing by Islamist, World Affairs Institute.Google Scholar
- Syndi Gate Media. 2014. Boko Haram—How “New Caliphate” Emerged. www.allafrica.com.
- Thomson, V. 2012. Boko Haram and Islamic Fundamentalism in Nigeria. Global Security Studies 3 (3): 46–60.Google Scholar
- Voll, J.O. 2015. Boko Haram: Religion and Violence in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: Georget University. www.mdpi.com/journal/religions, African Research Bulletin, Political, Social, and Cultural Series, vol. 52, no. 1.
- Wendt, A. 1987. The Agent-Structure Problem in International Relations Theory. MIT Press, International Organization 41 (3): 335–370.Google Scholar
- Wendt, A. 1992. Anarchy Is What States Make of the Social Construction of Power Politics. MIT Press, International Organization 46 (2): 391–425.Google Scholar