Regional Security in the Twenty-First Century’s South America: Economic, Energy, and Political Security in MERCOSUR and UNASUR

Chapter

Abstract

In 2004, Brazil and its South American neighbors created the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR). UNASUR was added to existing Latin American regional organizations such as the Mercado Común del Sur (MERCOSUR) or the Organization of American States (OAS), leading to overlapping regionalism both in membership and issues. UNASUR was supposed to serve political cooperation and integration of infrastructure but it gradually turned to security issues when it launched the South American Defense Council in 2008. Mixing traditional and non-traditional security issues, like energy, UNASUR led to complex regional security governance. Understanding this complex set of economic, energy, and traditional security requires a differentiated look at ideas, actors’ interests, and institutional competencies. This chapter will analyze economic, energy, and traditional security governance in South America by focusing on MERCOSUR and UNASUR with a particular view to the regional power Brazil by applying such a theoretical lens.

Keywords

Brazil MERCOSUR Regional security UNASUR 

References

  1. Buzan, Barry, and Ole Waever. 2003. Regions and Powers: The Structure of International Security. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Closa, Carlos, and Stefano Palestini. 2015. Between Democratic Protection and Self-Defense: The Case of Unasur and Venezuela. Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies Research Paper, 2015/93, Florence.Google Scholar
  3. Cope, John A., and Andrew Parks. 2016. Frontier Security: The Case of Brazil. Washington, DC: National Defense University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Defense White Paper. 2012. Livro Branco de Defesa Nacional. http://www.defesa.gov.br/arquivos/estado_e_defesa/livro_branco/lbdn_2013_ing_net.pdf. Accessed 15 May 2017.
  5. Duina, Francesco, and Jason Buxbaum. 2008. Regional Trade Agreements and the Pursuit of State Interests: Institutional Perspectives from NAFTA and Mercosur. Economy and Society 37 (2): 193–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Flemes, Daniel, and Michael Radseck. 2012. Creating Multi-level Security Governance in South America. In Comparative Regional Security Governance, ed. Shaun Breslin and Stuart Croft. Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Hofmann, Stephanie C., Barbara Bravo de Moares Mendes, and Susanna Campbell. 2016. Investing in International Security: Rising Powers and Institutional Choices. Cambridge Review of International Affairs 29 (3): 831–851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hopewell, Kristen. 2013. New Protagonists in Global Economic Governance: Brazilian Agribusiness at the WTO. New Political Economy 18 (4): 603–623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jenne, Nicole. 2016. The Domestic Origins of No-War Communities: State Capacity and the Management of Territorial Disputes in South America and Southeast Asia. PhD dissertation, European University Institute.Google Scholar
  10. Jenne, Nicole, and Luis Schenoni. 2015. Latin American Declaratory Regionalism: An Analysis of Presidential Discourse (1994–2014). Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies Research Paper, 2015/53, Florence.Google Scholar
  11. Kacowicz, Arie M., and Galia Press-Barnathan. 2016. Regional Security Governance. In The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Regionalism, ed. Tanja A. Börzel and Thomas Risse, 297–323. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Katzenstein, Peter J. 2005. A World of Regions: Asia and Europe in the American Imperium. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Kenkel, Kai. 2015. Multilateralism and Concepts of Security in South America. International Studies Review 17 (1): 150–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Krapohl, Sebastian, Katharina L. Meissner, and Johannes Muntschick. 2014. Regional Powers as Leaders or Rambos? The Ambivalent Behaviour of Brazil and South Africa in Regional Economic Integration. Journal of Common Market Studies 52 (4): 879–895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lenz, Tobias, and Alexandr Burilkov. 2016. Institutional Pioneers in World Politics: Regional Institution Building and the Influence of the European Union. European Journal of International Relations.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1354066116674261.Google Scholar
  16. Malamud, Andrés. 2003. Presidentialism and Mercosur: A Hidden Cause for a Successful Experience. In Comparative Regional Integration, ed. Finn Laursen, 53–75. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  17. Malamud, Andrés, and Gian Luca Gardini. 2012. Has Regionalism Peaked? The Latin American Quagmire and Its Lessons. The International Spectator: Italian Journal of International Affairs 47 (1): 116–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Malamud, Andrés, and Isabella Alcañiz. 2017. Managing Security in a Zone of Peace: Brazil’s Soft Approach to Regional Governance. Revista Brasileira de Política Internacional 60 (1).  https://doi.org/10.1590/0034-7329201700102.
  19. Meissner, Katharina L. 2016. Competing for Economic Power: South America, Southeast Asia and Commercial Realism in European Union Foreign Policy. PhD dissertation, European University Institute.Google Scholar
  20. Meissner, Katharina L. 2017. MERCOSUR. In Regional Integration in the Global South: External Influence on Economic Cooperation in ASEAN, MERCOSUR and SADC, ed. Sebastian Krapohl, 147–179. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Merke, Federico. 2015. Neither Balance Nor Bandwagon: South American International Society Meets Brazil’s Rising Power. International Politics 52 (2): 178–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nolte, Detlef, and Leslie Wehner. 2014. UNASUR and Regional Security in South America. In Regional Organisations and Security: Conceptions and Practices, ed. Stephen Aris and Andreas Wenger, 183–203. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  23. Oelsner, Andrea. 2009. Consensus and Governance in Mercosur: The Evolution of the South American Security Agenda. Security Dialogue 40 (2): 191–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Oelsner, Andrea. 2011. Mercosur’s Incipient Security Governance. In The Security Governance of Regional Organizations, ed. Emil J. Kirchner and Roberto Dominguez, 190–217. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  25. Oelsner, Andrea. 2015. Articulating Mercosur’s Security Conceptions and Practices. In Regional Organisations and Security: Conceptions and Practices, ed. Stephen Aris and Andreas Wenger, 203–223. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  26. Palestini, Stefano, and Giovanni Agostinis. 2015. Constructing Regionalism in South America: The Cases of Sectoral Cooperation on Transport Infrastructure and Energy. Journal of International Relations and Development.  https://doi.org/10.1057/jird.2015.15.Google Scholar
  27. Panke, Diana. 2017. Regional Actors in International Security Negotiations. European Journal for Security Research 2 (1): 5–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Panke, Diana, and Sören Stapel. (forthcoming). Exploring Overlapping Regionalism. Journal of International Relations and Development.  https://doi.org/10.1057/s41268-016-0081-x.
  29. Rivera, Salvador. 2014. Latin American Unification: A History of Political and Economic Integration Efforts. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.Google Scholar
  30. Siman Gomes, Maíra. 2016. Analysing Interventionism beyond Conventional Foreign Policy Rationales: The Engagement of Brazil in the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH). Cambridge Review of International Affairs 29 (3): 852–869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Valdivieso, Patricio. 2006. Südamerika: Gefahren und Möglichkeiten für die Sicherheit. In Transatlantische Beziehungen im Wandel: Sicherheitspolitische Aspekte der Beziehungen zwischen der Europäischen Union und Lateinamerika, ed. Franz Kernic and Walter Feichtinger, 67–91. Baden-Baden: Nomos.Google Scholar
  32. Weiffen, Brigitte, Matthias Dembinski, Andreas Hasenclever, Katja Freistein, and Makiko Yamauchi. 2011. Democracy, Regional Security Institutions, and Rivalry Mitigation: Evidence from Europe, South America, and Asia. Security Studies 20 (3): 378–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Weiffen, Brigitte, Wehner Leslie, and Detlef Nolte. 2013. Overlapping Regional Security Institutions in South America: The Case of OAS and UNASUR. International Area Studies Review 16 (4): 370–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wrobel, Paulo. 2009. Brazil’s Approach to Security in the Twenty-First Century. In Global Security in a Multipolar World, ed. Luis Peral, 15–31. Paris: EU Institute for Security Studies.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for European Integration Research EIFUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations