Experimental Activity

  • Giuseppe Grazzini
  • Adriano Milazzo
  • Federico Mazzelli


The importance of an extensive and accurate experimental activity has been recalled many times in this book, for example, in connection with the implementation of reliable numerical tools. In this chapter, we will present some experimental results related to ejectors, refrigeration systems containing ejectors, or physical processes which are relevant for ejectors development.

Unfortunately, the huge amount of data routinely collected by the industries that produce ejectors (for a few names, see Chap. 1) are unavailable or confidential and hence cannot be included here. Therefore, we will deal only with experimental data coming from laboratory prototypes built for research purpose. A caveat on these results concerns the size: in most cases prototypes tend to be small. In principle, this should pose a penalty on the measured performance. Even without citing real data from industry, we may at least certify that, invariably, steam ejectors used for industrial use show a clear decreasing trend of specific consumption of motive steam as size increases.


Ejector testing Chiller efficiencies Flow visualization Industrial prototype 


  1. Aphornratana, S., & Eames, I. (1997). A small capacity steam-ejector refrigerator: Experimental investigation of a system using ejector with movable primary nozzle. International Journal of Refrigeration, 20, 352–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Besagni, G., Mereu, R., & Inzoli, F. (2016). Ejector refrigeration: A comprehensive review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 53, 373–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bouhanguel, A., Desevaux, P., & Gavignet, E. (2011). Flow visualization in supersonic ejectors using laser tomography techniques. International Journal of Refrigeration, 34, 1633–1640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bouhanguel, A., Desevaux, P., Bailly, Y., & Girardot, L. (2012). Particle image velocimetry in a supersonic ejector, 15th International Symposium on Flow Visualization. June 25–28, Minsk, Belarus, s.n.Google Scholar
  5. Carroll, B., & Dutton, J. (1990). Characteristics of multiple shock wave/turbulent boundary-layer interactions in rectangular ducts. Journal of Propulsion, 6, 186–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen, Y., & Sun, C. (1997). Experimental study of the performance characteristics of a steam-ejector refrigeration system. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 15, 384–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen, X., Omer, S., Worall, M., & Riffat, S. (2013). Recent developmentsinejectorrefrigerationtechnologies. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 19, 629–651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chunnanond, K., & Aphornratana, S. (2004). An experimental investigation of a steam ejector. Applied Thermal Engineering, 24, 311–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Desevaux, P. (2001). A method for visualizing the mixing zone between two co-axial flows in an ejector. Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 35, 317–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Desevaux, P., Prenel, J., & Hostache, G. (1994). An optical analysis of an induced flow ejector using light polarization properties. Experiments in Fluids, 16, 165–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dvorak, V., & Safarik, P. (2005). Transonic instability in entrance part of mixing chamber of high-speed ejector. Journal of Thermal Science, 14, 258–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Eames, I. (2002). A new prescription for the design of supersonic jet-pumps: The constant rate of momentum change method. Applied Thermal Engineering, 22, 121–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Eames, I., Ablwaifa, A., & Petrenko, V. (2007). Results of an experimental study of an advanced jet-pump refrigerator operating with R245fa. Applied Thermal Engineering, 27, 2833–2284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Eames, I., Milazzo, A., Paganini, D., & Livi, M. (2013). The design, manufacture and testing of a jet-pump chiller for air conditioning and industrial application. Applied Thermal Engineering, 58, 234–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fabri, J., & Siestrunck, R. (1958). Supersonic air ejectors. In Advances in applied mechanics (Vol. 5). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  16. Grazzini, G., Milazzo, A., & Paganini, D. (2012). Design of an ejector cycle refrigeration system. Energy Conversion and Management, 54, 38–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Havermann, M., Haertig, J., Rey, C., & George, A. (2008). PIV measurements in shock tunnels and shock tubes. In C. W. A. Schroeder (Ed.), Particle image velocimetry, Topics in applied physics (Vol. 112, pp. 429–443). Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Huang, B., & Chang, J. (1999). Empirical correlation for ejector design. International Journal of Refrigeration, 22, 379–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Huang, B., Chang, J., Wang, C., & Petrenko, V. (1999). A 1-D analysis of ejector performance. International Journal of Refrigeration, 22, 354–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Karthick, S. (2017). Private communication. s.l.:s.n.Google Scholar
  21. Karthick, S., Rao, S., Jagadeesh, G., & Reddy, K. (2016). Parametric experimental studies on mixing characteristics within a low area ratio rectangular supersonic gaseous ejector. Physics of Fluids, 28, 1–26.Google Scholar
  22. Karthick, S. K., Rao, S., Jagadeesh, G., & Reddy, K. (2017). Passive scalar mixing studies to identify the mixing length. Experiments in Fluids, 58(59), 1–20.Google Scholar
  23. Keenan, J., Neumann, E., & Lustwerk, F. (1950). An investigation of ejector design by analysis and experiment. Journal of Applied Mechanics, 17, 299–309.Google Scholar
  24. Lamberts, O., Chatelain, P., & Bartosiewicz, Y. (2017). New methods for analyzing transport phenomena in supersonic ejectors. International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 64, 23–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lemmon, E., Huber, M., & McLinden, M. (2013). NIST standard reference database 23: Reference fluid thermodynamic and transport properties-REFPROP, Version 9.1, s.l.: National Institute of Standards and Technology.Google Scholar
  26. Lozano, A., Yip, B., & Hanson, R. (1992). Acetone: a tracer for concentration measurements in gaseous flows by planar laser-induced fluorescence. Experiments in Fluids, 13, 369–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ma, X., Zhang, W., Omer, S., & Riffat, S. (2010). Experimental investigation of a novel steam ejector refrigerator suitable for solar energy applications. Applied Thermal Engineering, 30, 1320–1325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Matsuo, K., Sasaguchi, K., Kiyotoki, Y., & Mochizuki, H. (1981). Investigation of supersonic air ejectors (Part 1, performance in the case of zero-secondary flow). Bulletin of JSME, 24, 2090–2097.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Matsuo, K., Sasaguchi, K., Kiyotoki, Y., & Mochizuki, H. (1982). Investigation of supersonic air ejectors (Part 2, effects of throat-area-ratio on ejector performance). Bulletin of JSME, 25, 1898–1905.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mazzelli, F., & Milazzo, A. (2015). Performance analysis of a supersonic ejector cycle. International Journal of Refrigeration, 49, 79–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Milazzo, A., Rocchetti, A., & Eames, I. (2014). Theoretical and experimental activity on Ejector Refrigeration. Energy Procedia, 45, 1245–1254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Munday, J. T., & Bagster, D. F. (1977). A new ejector theory applied to steam jet refrigeration. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Process Design and Development, 164, 442–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nguyen, V., Riffat, S., & Doherty, P. (2001). Development of a solar-powered passive ejector cooling system. Applied Thermal Engineering, 21, 157–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rao, S. M. V., & Jagadeesh, G. (2014). Observations on the non-mixed length and unsteady shock motion in a two dimensional supersonic ejector. Physics in Fluids, 26(036103), 1–26.Google Scholar
  35. Scarano, F. (2008). Overview of PIV in supersonic flows. In C. W. A. Schroeder (Ed.), Particle image velocimetry, Topics in applied physics (Vol. 112, pp. 445–463). Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Selvaraju, A., & Mani, A. (2006). Experimental investigation on R134a vapor ejector refrigeration system. International Journal of Refrigeration, 29, 1160–1166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Settles, G. (2001). Schlieren and shadowgraph techniques: visualizing phenomena in transparent media. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  38. Smits, A., & Dussauge, J.-P. (2006). Turbulent shear layers in supersonic flow (2nd ed.). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  39. Smits, A., & Lim, T. (2012). Flow visualization, techniques and examples (2nd ed.). London: Imperial College Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yapici, R., & Yetisen, C. (2007). Experimental study on ejector refrigeration system powered by low grade heat. Energy Conversion and Management, 48, 1560–1568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Yapici, R., et al. (2008). Experimental determination of the optimum performance of ejector refrigeration system depending on ejector area ratio. International Journal of Refrigeration, 31, 1183–1189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zhu, Y., & Jiang, P. (2014a). Experimental and numerical investigation of the effect of shock wave characteristics on the ejector performance. International Journal of Refrigeration, 40, 31–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zhu, Y., & Jiang, P. (2014b). Experimental and analytical studies on the shock wave length in convergent and convergent–divergent nozzle ejectors. Energy Conversion and Management, 88, 907–914.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giuseppe Grazzini
    • 1
  • Adriano Milazzo
    • 1
  • Federico Mazzelli
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Industrial EngineeringUniversity of FlorenceFlorenceItaly

Personalised recommendations