• Giuseppe Grazzini
  • Adriano Milazzo
  • Federico Mazzelli


Ejectors are part of a vast family of equipment that may collectively be named “jet devices.” These devices may convey gases, liquids, or even solids (fine particles), but all share two main features:
  • Have no moving parts

  • Use a relatively high-pressure stream to convey a low-pressure stream toward an intermediate pressure receiver

Jet devices have a long history and may be used for a wide range of applications. They are produced on custom specification or in small series by a relatively small number of companies in Europe and the USA. Their use as fluid-driven compressors in refrigeration systems is known since the early twentieth century but has received increased attention from the scientific community in the last two decades, due to the potential as a simple and effective option for heat-powered cooling. When compared to absorption or adsorption cooling, the use of ejectors is competitive only in niche markets, but the situation could change if significant performance increase was registered.

This chapter gives a brief explanation of the ejector working principle and shows how a refrigeration system can be built on it. A short history of the ejector follows. Finally, some applications within and outside of the refrigeration field are reviewed.


Ejectors Injectors Two-phase ejectors Ejector applications Ejector chillers 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giuseppe Grazzini
    • 1
  • Adriano Milazzo
    • 1
  • Federico Mazzelli
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Industrial EngineeringUniversity of FlorenceFlorenceItaly

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