Leaders Against Colonialism
In the nineteenth century the Muslim world had to face invasions from the non-Muslim world. In four areas dynamic leaders arose to lead attempts to fight off these invasions. They were all inspired by a desire to renew Islamic society. (i) In Daghestan Shamil opposed the Russians; (ii) in Algeria it was ‘Abd al-Qadir; (iii) in Sudan the Mahdi; and (iv) in Somalia the Mullah Muhammad ‘Abdallah. In different ways all four leaders failed.