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Crop Productivity in Changing Climate

  • Bhupinder Dhir
Chapter
Part of the Sustainable Agriculture Reviews book series (SARV, volume 27)

Abstract

Climate change has been identified the major environmental constraint affecting the vegetation all over the globe. Environmental variations such as increase in temperature, carbon dioxide (CO2), change in precipitation pattern and associated abiotic stresses such as heat, drought, salinity, soil nutrient status affect the growth and productivity of plants. Alterations in the growth and yield of crop plants limit agricultural productivity thus affecting the food production required to sustain growing human population. Models suggest that change in flowering pattern due to alterations in temperature and effects on other factors such as nutrient availability, carbon sequestration, microbial dynamics, and increased pathogen infestation are likely to affect growth and yield of agricultural crops. Abiotic stress due to climatic variations will cause disturbance in essential phenological, physiological and biochemical events in plants. Studies suggest differential responses of plants to changes in temperature and CO2. Crop yields of both C3 and C4 species are expected to increase within the range of 5–20% under conditions of increasing CO2 conditions, but supposed to decrease by about 10% with every 1 °C rise in temperature. Plants can minimize the effect of stress induced by various climatic factors by developing adaptive traits and tolerance mechanisms. Biotechnological approaches can also prove useful in developing crop plants with enhanced capacity for withstanding abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity and flooding. Transgenic crop plants developed by genetic engineering technology can grow under adverse environmental conditions.

Keywords

Abiotic Climate Crops Nutrition Productivity Salinity Soils Yield 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The financial support from University Grants Commission (UGC), India to author is gratefully acknowledged.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bhupinder Dhir
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeneticsUniversity of Delhi South CampusNew DelhiIndia

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