Ozone Toxicity and Remediation in Crop Plants

  • Annesha Ghosh
  • Aditya Abha Singh
  • Madhoolika Agrawal
  • S. B. Agrawal
Chapter
Part of the Sustainable Agriculture Reviews book series (SARV, volume 27)

Abstract

Tropospheric ozone (O3) phytotoxicity is a major threat to agricultural production leading to global yield loss of about 3.9–15% for wheat, 8.5–14% for soybean and 2.2–5.5% for maize. At a global scale, the United States displays a decline in O3 level of about 17% from 2000–2015. O3 concentration in the United States is about two times higher than that of Europe. Despite the declining trend in these two continents, the prevailing concentrations are still high enough to affect the plant growth and productivity. Beside this, a significant rise in O3 pollution is observed in various Asian countries. China, the fastest developing nation of Asia, has shown an increase of surface O3 concentration by 0.58 ppbv/yr. from 1994 to 2007. A continuous increase in the emission of O3 precursors in southern and central Asia has been reported due to weaker legislative policies in the developing countries, contributing to more O3 prevalence in such regions. A simulation study projected an increase of global tropospheric O3 by 4.3 ± 2.2 ppb with maximum increment displayed in South Asia, South-East Asia and Middle Eastern region.

Taking into consideration the O3 induced toxicity in the crop plants, here we review the O3 formation chemistry, its prevalence, spatial-temporal variation, phytotoxicity, and related economic and yield losses. We have also emphasized on the effectiveness of potential agronomic practices, approaches and their applicability in reducing O3 induced yield losses. Soil amendments, tillage practices, use of plant protectants, shifting of crop calendars, weed management, plantation strategies, seed treatment and management of abiotic stress such as drought and salinity can be implemented in improving crop productivity against O3 stress. For example, with the application of 1.5 times recommended NPK dose, an improvement in total biomass by 25.4% in wheat cultivar LOK 1 has been observed as compared to recommended dose. Furthermore, application of plant protectant such as ethylene diurea has been reported to reduce visible O3 injury by 76%, increased photosynthetic rate by 8%, above ground biomass by 7% and crop yield by 15%. Exogenous application of ascorbic acid at 50 mM/L exhibited protection against 800 ppb O3 in barley seedlings along with improvement in photoregulation of Rubisco activity. Plantation of high volatile organic compound (VOC) emitters emitters such as Dalbergia sissoo, Ficus religiosa, Eucalyptus globulus etc. must be avoided in the vicinity of agricultural areas as VOC is one of the major precursor that drives the level of surface O3.

Keywords

Agronomic Practices Cultivars Ozone Mitigation Protectants Phytotoxicity Yield Losses 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors are thankful to the Head, Department of Botany, coordinator CAS, Botany for necessary research facilities and to SERB (Department of Science and Technology), DST-FIST and University Grants Commission, New Delhi for providing financial support to the work. Authors are thankful to Mr. Arideep Mukherjee for providing valuable suggestions and constructive discussions.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annesha Ghosh
    • 1
  • Aditya Abha Singh
    • 1
  • Madhoolika Agrawal
    • 1
  • S. B. Agrawal
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Department of Botany, Institute of ScienceBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia

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