Pathological Elements in Analog Circuit Design pp 261-287 | Cite as

# Fixator-Norator Pair Based Design of Analog Circuits

## Abstract

An approach towards the design and analysis of analog circuits is presented in this chapter. Fixator-Norator Pair (FNP), which is a combination of nullor plus sources, is the key element in this technique. A brief explanation about the possible realizations of FNPs is introduced in this chapter, which is followed by the use of FNPs in source allocation, source transformation, and biasing design. Second section deals with the design of analog integrated circuits based on FNPs. The design is primarily adhered with the design of active loads and/or current mirrors for satisfying the requirements of a given amplifier circuit. Feedback is an integral part of many analog circuits, so that the design automation of feedback networks is advantageous; which is also covered in this chapter. Finally, the complete AC performance design case is considered and it is a two-step process. FNP along with the linear equivalent model of the target circuit together does the first step, which is the design for input and output resistance and gain. The second step performs the design for bandwidth, i.e., mainly the cut-off frequencies. This is based on Bode plot analysis, which requires a reference circuit having the same frequency response as that of the desired one. All the proposed techniques are proved with the help of example circuits so that the reader can better understand the proposed method.

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