Applications of the Voltage Mirror-Current Mirror in Realizing Active Building Blocks

Chapter
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 479)

Abstract

In this chapter four alternative realizations of the nullator using a single VM or two VMs are summarized. Similarly four alternative realizations of the norator using a single CM or two CMs are also demonstrated. It is also shown that the VM-CM pair can be used to realize a Nullor, A Voltage Op Amp, A Current Op amp, Voltage follower (VF), Voltage Inverter (VI), Current follower (CF), current Inverter (CI), Current Conveyors CCII+, CCII-, ICCII+ and an ICCII- without the use of any external resistors. The use of the VM-CM pair with additional resistors to realize the family of controlled sources, transconductance amplifiers and other active building blocks using NAM expansion is included. Finally it is shown the Nullator-CM pair as well as its adjoint which is the VM-Norator pair can also be used as Universal building blocks.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Electronics and Communication Engineering DepartmentCairo UniversityGizaEgypt

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