On the Use of a Dense Network of Seismo-Acoustic Arrays for Near-Regional Environmental Monitoring

  • Il-Young CheEmail author
  • Junghyun Park
  • Tae Sung Kim
  • Chris Hayward
  • Brian Stump


A dense network of eight, seismo-acoustic arrays operates in the southern Korean Peninsula, and since the first array installation in 1999, has provided data for monitoring local and regional seismic and infrasound signals from natural and anthropogenic phenomena. The main operational purpose of the network is to discriminate man-made seismic events from natural earthquakes to produce a clean earthquake catalog, and to ensure that seismic and infrasonic data are appropriately used for analyzing and characterizing various sources using the seismo-acoustic wave fields. This chapter summarizes results of several studies that used the network dataset to; (i) Compare seasonal variations in infrasound detections with local surface weather measurements and stratospheric wind dynamics, (ii) Develop seismic and acoustic data fusion methods that enhance source discrimination synergy, (iii) Understand the characteristic of local and regional infrasound propagation using repetitive surface explosion sources, and (iv) Review infrasound observations from earthquakes and underground nuclear tests. Finally, this chapter illustrates the usefulness of dense regional networks to characterize various seismo-acoustic sources and enhance detection capability in regions of interest in the context of future verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.



We thank Alexis Le Pichon for supports in the assessment of detection capability of infrasound network for this chapter. This work was supported by the Basic Research Project of the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning of Korea.


  1. Arrowsmith SJ, Hedlin MAH (2005) Observations of infrasound from surf in southern California. Geophys Res Lett 32:L09810. Scholar
  2. Arrowsmith SJ, Whitaker R, Katz C, Hayward C (2009) The F-detector revisited: an improved strategy for signal detection at seismic and infrasound arrays. Bull Seismol Soc Am 99(1):449–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arrowsmith SJ, Burlacu R, Pankow K, Stump B, Stead R, Whitaker R, Hayward C (2012) A seismoacoustic study of the 2011 January 3 Circleville earthquake. Geophys J Int 189:1148–1158. Scholar
  4. Assink JD, Waxler R, Smets P, Evers LG (2014) Bidirectional infrasonic ducts associated with sudden stratospheric warming events. J Geophys Res Atmos 119. Scholar
  5. Assink JD, Averbuch G, Smets PSM, Evers LG (2016) On the infrasound detected from the 2013 and 2016 DPRK’s underground nuclear tests. Geophys Res Lett 43(7):3526–3533. Scholar
  6. Blom PS, Marcillo O, Arrowsmith SJ (2015) Improved bayesian infrasonic source localization for regional infrasound. Geophys J Int 203:1682–1693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brachet N, Brown D, Bras RL, Cansi Y, Mialle P, Coyne J (2010) Monitoring the Earth’s atmosphere with the global ims infrasound network, infrasound monitoring for atmospheric studies. In: Le Pichon A, Blanc E, Hauchecorne A (eds), pp 77–118, Springer. New York,
  8. Brown PG, Whitaker RW, ReVelle DO, Tagliaferri E (2002) Multi-station infrasonic observations of two large bolides: signal interpretation and implications for monitoring of atmospheric explosions. Geophys Res Lett 29(13):1636. Scholar
  9. Cansi Y (1995) An automatic seismic event processing for detection and location: The PMCC method. Geophys Res Lett 22:1021–1024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cansi Y, Vergoz J, Schissele E (2005) A quantitative evaluation of PMCC’s detection capability. In: Proceedings of the Infrasound Technical Workshop, CTBTO and CEA/DASE, TahitiGoogle Scholar
  11. Che I-Y, Jun M-S, Jeon J-S, Min KD (2002) Analysis of local seismo-acoustic events in the Korean Peninsula. Geophys Res Lett 29:1589. Scholar
  12. Che I-Y, Jun M-S, Jeon J-S (2007) A compound linear discriminant method for small-magnitude seismic events and its application to the North Korea seismic event of October 9, 2006. Earth Planets Sp 59:e41–e44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Che I-Y, Shin JS, Kang IK (2009a) Seismo-acoustic location method for small-magnitude surface explosions. Earth Planets Sp 61:e1–e4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Che I-Y, KimTS Jeon J-S, Lee H-I (2009b) Infrasound observation of the apparent North Korean nuclear test of 25 May 2009. Geophys Res Lett 36:L22802. Scholar
  15. Che I-Y, Stump BW, Lee H-I (2011) Experimental characterization of seasonal variations in infrasonic traveltimes on the Korean Peninsula with implications for infrasound event location. Geophys J Int 185:190–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Che I-Y, Le Pichon A, Kim IH, Lee H-I (2012) Incorporating numerical modeling into estimates of the detection capability of the KIGAM infrasound network. In: Proceedings infrasound technology workshop, Daejeon, South Korea, 8–12 Oct 2012Google Scholar
  17. Che I-Y, Park J, Kim IH, Kim TS, Lee H-I (2014) Infrasound signals from the underground nuclear explosions of North Korea. Geophys J Int 198:495–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cook RK (1971) Infrasound radiated during the Montana earthquake of 1959 August 18. Geophys J R Astr Soc 26:191–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Donn WL, Posmentier ES (1964) Ground-coupled air waves from the Great Alaskan earthquake. J Geophys Res 69:5357–5361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Donn WL, Rind D (1972) Microbaroms and the temperature and winds in the upper atmosphere. J Atmos Sci 29:156–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Drob DP, Garcés M, Hedlin MAH, Brachet N (2010) The temporal morphology of infrasound propagation. Pure appl Geophys 167:437–453. Scholar
  22. Evers LG, Ceranna L, Haak HW, Le Pichon A, Whitaker RW (2007) A seismoacoustic analysis of the gas-pipeline explosion near Ghislenghien in Belgium. Bull Seism Soc Am 97:417–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ford SR, Rodgers AJ, Xu H, Templeton DC, Harben P, Foxall W, Reinke RE (2014) Partitioning of seismoacoustic energy and estimation of yield and height-of-burst/depth-of-burial for near-surface explosions. Bull Seismol Soc Am 104:608–623. Scholar
  24. Green DN, Guilbert J, Le Pichon A, Sebe O, Bowers D (2009) Modeling ground-to-air coupling for the shallow ML 4.3 Folkestone, United Kingdom, earthquake of 28 April 2007. Bull Seismol Soc Am 99:2541–2552. Scholar
  25. Hart DH, Young CJ (2002) MatSeis User Manual version 1.7.
  26. Hayward C (1999) Construction and evaluation of a simple infrasound microphone using an industrial pressure transducer, AGU poster, S11B07Google Scholar
  27. Hayward C (2003) Infrasound noise reduction using inexpensive microphones, AGU poster, U31B-0017Google Scholar
  28. Johnson JB, Anderson J, Marcillo O, Arrowsmith S (2012) Probing local wind and temperature structure using infrasound from Volcan Villarrica (Chile). J Geophys Res 117:D17107. Scholar
  29. Jones KR, Abbott R, Hamshire J, White B, Marcillo O, Whitaker R (2015) Airborne infrasound: A new way to explore the 3D acoustic wavefield. In: Infrasound Technology Workshop 2015 Book of Abstract, 24Google Scholar
  30. Kim SG, Park YC, Kim WY (1998) Discrimination of small earthquakes and artificial explosions in the Korean Peninsula using Pg/Lg ratios. Geophy J Int 134:267–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kim TS, Hayward C, Stump B (2004) Local infrasound signals from the Tokachi-Oki earthquake. Geophys Res Lett 31:L20605. Scholar
  32. Kim TS, Kang IB, Kim GY (2009) Yield ratio estimates using regional Pn and Pg from North Korea’s underground nuclear explosions. Geophys Res Lett 36:L22302. Scholar
  33. Kim TS, Hayward C, Stump B (2010) Calibration of acoustic gauge in the field using seismic Lg phase and coupled high frequency local infrasound. Bull Seismol Soc Am 100(4):1806–1815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kulichkov SN, ReVelle DO, Whitaker RW, Raspopov OM (2000) On so-called “tropospheric” arrivals at long distances from surface explosions. In: Proceedings of the ninth annual symposium on long-range propagation, Oxford, MS, 14–15 Sept, pp 229–237. National Center for Physical AcousticsGoogle Scholar
  35. Landès M, Ceranna L, Le Pichon A, Matoza RS (2012) Localization of microbarom sources using the IMS infrasound network. J Geophys Res 117:D06102. Scholar
  36. Le Pichon A, Guilbert J, Vega A, Garces M, Brachet N (2002a) Ground-coupled air waves and diffracted infrasound from the Areaquipa earthquake of June 23, 2001. Geophy Res Lett 29(8):1886–1889Google Scholar
  37. Le Pichon A, Garce´s M, Blanc E, Barthe´le´my M, Drob DP (2002b) Acoustic propagation and atmosphere characteristics derived from infrasonic waves generated by the Concorde. J Acoust Soc Am 111:629–641Google Scholar
  38. Le Pichon A, Vergoz J, Herry P, Ceranna L (2008a) Analyzing the detection capability of infrasound arrays in Central Europe. J Geophys Res 113:D12115. Scholar
  39. Le Pichon A, Antier K, Cansi Y, Hernandez B, Minaya E, Burgoa B, Drob D, Evers L, Vaubaillon J (2008b) Evidence for a meteoritic origin of the September 15, 2007, Carancas crater. Meteorit Planet Sci 43:1797–1809. Scholar
  40. Le Pichon A, Vergoz J, Blanc E, Guilbert J, Ceranna L, Evers L, Brachet N (2009) Assessing the performance of the International Monitoring System’s infrasound network: geographical coverage and temporal variabilities. J Geophys Res 114:D08112. Scholar
  41. Le Pichon A, Matoza R, Brachet N, Cansi Y (2010) Recent enhancements of the PMCC infrasound signal detector. Inframatics 26 (2010)Google Scholar
  42. Le Pichon A, Ceranna L, Vergoz J (2012a) Incorporating numerical modeling into estimates of the detection capability of the IMS infrasound network. J Geophys Res 117:D05121. Scholar
  43. Le Pichon A, Ceranna L, Kechut P (2012b) Global scale stratospheric processes as measured by the infrasound IMS network. In: EGU general assembly conference abstracts, p 9146Google Scholar
  44. LeBras RJ (2008) Multi-sensor data fusion project final report. USA: SAIC Technical reportGoogle Scholar
  45. Lee CO, Hong SS, Lee BT, Kim GS, Yun HS (2006) Spatial distribution of the dimension stone quarries in Korea. J Petrol Soc Korea 15(3):154–166Google Scholar
  46. Marcillo O, Johnson JB (2010) Tracking near-surface atmospheric conditions using an infrasound network. J Acoust Soc Am Lett 128(1):EL14–EL19. Scholar
  47. Marcillo O, Arrowsmith SJ, Whitaker R, Anderson D, Nippress A, Green D, Drob DP (2013) Using physics-based priors in a Bayesian algorithm to enhance infrasound source location. Geophys J Int 196:375–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Marty J (2015) Overview of IMS infrasound station and engineering projects. In: Infrasound technology workshop 2015 book of abstract, vol 6Google Scholar
  49. McKenna MH, Stump BW, Hayward C (2008) Effect of time-varying tropospheric models on near-regional and regional infrasound propagation as constrained by observational data. J Geophys Res 113:D11111. Scholar
  50. Modrak RT, Arrowsmith SJ, Anderson DN (2010) A Bayesian framework for infrasound location. Geophys J Int 181:399–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Murai Y, Akiyama S, Katsumata K, Takanami T, Yamashina T, Watanabe T, Cho I, Tanaka M, Kuwano A, Wada N, Shimamura H, Furuya I, Zhao D, Sanda R (2003) Delamination structure imaged in the source area of the 1982 Urakawa-oki earthquake. Geophys Res Lett 30(9):1490–1493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Negraru PT, Golden P, Herrin ET (2010) Infrasound propagation in the “Zone of Silence”. Seismol Res Lett 81(4):614–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Park J, Stump BW, Hayward CT, Arrowsmith SJ, Che I-Y (2011) Multiple-array detection, association, and location of infrasound and seismo-acoustic event—utilization of ground truth information. In: Proceeding of the 2011 monitoring research review: ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring technologies, vol 2, pp 798–807Google Scholar
  54. Park J, Arrowsmith SJ, Hayward C, Stump BW, Blom P (2014) Automatic infrasound detection and location of sources in the western United States. J Geophys Res Atmos 119:7773–7798. Scholar
  55. Park J, Stump BW (2014) Seasonal variations of infrasound detections and their characteristics in the western US. Geosci J 19(1):97–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Park J, Stump BW, Hayward C, Arrowsmith SJ, Che I-Y, Drob D (2016) Detection of regional infrasound signals using array data—testing, tuning, and physical interpretation. J Acoust Soc Am 140(1):239–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Park J, Hayward C, Zeiler CP, Arrowsmith SJ, Stump BW (2017) Assessment of infrasound detectors based on analyst review, environmental effects, and detection characteristics. Bull Seism Soc Am 107(2)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rind DH, Donn WL (1978) Infrasound observations of variability during stratospheric warmings. J Atmos Sci 35:546–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rodgers AJ, Walter WR (2002) Seismic discrimination of the May 11, 1998 Indian nuclear test with short-period regional data from Station NIL (Nilore, Pakistan). Pure Appl Geophys. 159:679–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Shumway RH, Kim S, Blandford RR (1999) Nonlinear estimation for time series observed on arrays, In Ghosh S (ed) Asymptotics, nonparametrics, and Time Series 227–258 Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  61. Stump B, Jun MS, Hayward C, Jeon JS, Che I-Y, Thomason K, House SM, McKenna J (2004) Small-aperture seismo-acoustic arrays: design, implementation, and utilization. Bull Seism Soc Am 94(1):220–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Stump B, Zhou R, Kim T, Chen Y, Yang Z, Herrmann R, Burlacu R, Hayward C, Pankow K (2008) Shear velocity structure in NE Chinar and characterization of infrasound wave propagation in the 1–210 kilometer range. In: Proceedings of the 29th monitoring research review: ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring technologies, Rancho Mirage, California, LA-UR-08-05261, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, pp 287–296Google Scholar
  63. Stump BW, Park J, Hayward C, Arrowsmith S, Che I-Y (2012) Performance assessment of multi-array processing with ground truth for infrasonic, seismic and seismo-acoustic events, Final report, AFRL-RV-PS-TR-2012–0123Google Scholar
  64. Stump BW, Park J, Che I-Y, Hayward C (2016) Seismic and infrasound characteristics of North Korean nuclear explosions utilizing regional data, 12–16 December 2016 AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA, USAGoogle Scholar
  65. Vortman LJ (1968) Air blast from underground explosions as a function of charge burial. Ann N Y Acad Sci 152(1):362–377. Scholar
  66. Walker KT, Shelby R, Hedlin MAH, de Groot-Hedlin C, Vernon F (2011) Western U.S. Infrasonic Catalog: Illuminating infrasonic hot spots with the USArray. J Geophys Res 116:B12305.
  67. Walter WR, Taylor SR (2001) A revised magnitude and distance amplitude correction (MDAC2) procedure for regional seismic discriminants: theory and testing at NTS, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ReportGoogle Scholar
  68. Whitaker RW, Sondoval TD, Mutschlecner JP (2003) Recent infrasound analysis. In: Proceedings of the 25th seismic reserch review—nuclear explosion monitoring: building the knowledge base, 646–654, National Nuclear Security Administration, Tucson, ArizGoogle Scholar
  69. Whitaker RW (2007) Infrasound signals as basis for event discriminants. In: Proceedings of the 29th monitoring research review: ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring Technologies, National Nuclear Security Administration, Washington, DC., pp 905–913Google Scholar
  70. Williams ED, Adams ML, Brooks L, Bowyer TW, Cobb DD, Garwin RL, Jeanloz R, Mies R, Tarter CB, Sykes LR, Hartse H, Richards RG, Vink GVD, Walter WR (2012) The comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty: technical issues for the United States. National Academy of Sciences, pp 45–52Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Il-Young Che
    • 1
    Email author
  • Junghyun Park
    • 2
  • Tae Sung Kim
    • 1
  • Chris Hayward
    • 2
  • Brian Stump
    • 2
  1. 1.Earthquake Research CenterKorea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral ResourcesDaejeonKorea
  2. 2.Roy M. Huffington Department of Earth SciencesSouthern Methodist UniversityDallasUSA

Personalised recommendations